About this sample
About this sample
Words: 1363 |
7 min read
Published: Jan 4, 2019
Words: 1363|Pages: 3|7 min read
Body fat is made up of fat cells, or adipose cells. These cells are made of one or more fatty acids and a glycerol. In the form of triglycerides, fat cells store fat later converted into energy and used by the body when needed. Ovarian cancer is cancer in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs that reproduce eggs. There is no cure for cancer, but the cause of this cancer is also undiscovered. Although, the cause of the cancer is unknown, there are many factors that affect the development of ovarian cancer. If a woman gives birth early in life, it decreases her chance for the development of ovarian cancer. Woman who have a family with a history of ovarian or breast cancer are at high risk for being diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Older woman have a higher jeopardy for being diagnosed with ovarian cancer compared to younger people. “FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis” (BioMed Central Ltd 2011).
The omentum is made of fat cells and provides nutrients for the growth of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer cells feed on the fat cells and increase rapidly. Tumor cells are attracted to the protein signals released by the omentum. During an experiment, the attraction was reduced by 50% with the help of inhibitors. The cancer cells feed on the lipid of the fat cells and the entire omentum, an area made up of a large amount of fat cells, is replaced by cancerous cells. Fat cells are increasing the growth of cancer cells through the omentum and researchers believe that an area made up of large amount of fat cells may also be food for other cancers such as breast cancer.
Fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) may be a treatment and stop the spread of the cancer. Primary ovarian cancer tissue, which had spread to the omentum, was compared to cancer cells distant from the fat cells. The cancerous cells next to the omentum produced high levels of FABP4, while cancer cells distant from the fat cells did not produce FABP4. Cancer cells fed less on fat cells when FABP4 was reduced. The transfer of nutrients from fat cells to cancer cells decreased when FABP4 was restrained. Researchers now conclude that FABP4 can be an appropriate treatment and may stop the spread of ovarian cancer through the omentum.
The article, “Fat Cells in Abdomen Fuel Spread of Ovarian Cancer”, includes many things that are supported by clear evidence. For example in the article it describes that, “A large pad of fat cells that extends from the stomach and covers the intestines provides nutrients that promote the spread and growth of ovarian cancer” (Science Daily October 30, 2011). This statement is built upon the research done at the University of Chicago in the journal Nature Medicine. Nature Medicine was published October 30th, 2011, so the information is up to date and valid because it was based upon research done by a group of students. The article also includes, “This fatty tissue, which is extraordinarily rich in energy-dense lipids, acts as a launching pad and energy source for the likely lethal spread of ovarian cancer” (Science Daily October 30, 2011). This report was given by Ernst Lengyel, after experimenting. The article states, “The researchers performed a series of experiments to identify the role of these fat cells as major mediators of ovarian cancer metastasis” (Science Daily October 30, 2011). Although it is stated that many experiments took place, there is only one experiment about FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein, which is mentioned in the article. I am left wondering, what the other experiments were because they weren’t revealed in the article. In the article it explains that, ovarian cancer cells injected into the abdomen of healthy mice find their way to the omentum within 20 minutes (Science Daily October 30, 2011). According to my research, older woman are at higher risk for developing ovarian cancer. If this is the case, then isn’t the age of the mice a factor in the experiment? The article included that the mice were healthy, but failed to extinguish the age of the mice.
FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein, is mentioned in the article and may be a possible candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In class, we learned about two types of proteins and a generic fatty acid. Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Proteins are needed by the body for growth and repair. A regulatory protein, uses enzymes to maintain homeostasis while, a structural protein keeps structure. Elastin and collagen are two structural proteins. The amount of elastin decreases as you get older. Structural proteins are found in the skin and bones. Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are “compounds with an amino acid group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end” (Kenneth R. Miller and Joseph S. Levine 49). An amino group is two hydrogen bonded to a nitrogen. A carboxyl group is a carbon double bonded to a molecule of oxygen and single bonded to an oxygen, which is also bonded to hydrogen (OH). A peptide bond is the bond between two amino acids. It connects the carbon (C) of the carboxyl group to the nitrogen (N) of the amino group. Two amino acids together are called a dipeptide while, three or more bonds between amino acids is called a polypeptide. The amino acids are combined using hydrolysis, or the adding of H2O to break down a larger component. Dehydration Synthesis, the removal of H2O, is used to separate a dipeptide. A lipid molecule is made up of three fatty acids and one glycerol. There are three types of lipids. If there is only a single bond between carbons in the fatty acids it is known as a saturated lipid. An unsaturated lipid has one double or triple bond between the carbons of the fatty acids and a polyunsaturated lipid has one or more than one double or triple bond between the carbons in the fatty acids. A generic fatty acid is made up of carbons, hydrogen and oxygen.
A treatment for ovarian cancer and, other cancers that develop in environments where fat cells are plentiful, will be a huge benefit for those who have ovarian cancer. The treatment may help researchers find a cure for ovarian cancer and lead them to find the cure for many other cancers. There is no cure for cancer, but this treatment may give hope to those who are fighting with cancer. If the treatment using FABP4, is successful for people suffering for ovarian cancer, the amount of people, especially woman, with ovarian cancer will decrease greatly. This treatment may also help researchers find what’s causing ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer is cancer in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs that reproduce eggs. There is no cure for cancer, but the cause of this cancer is also undiscovered. Although, the cause of the cancer is unknown, there are many factors that affect the development of ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer cells feed on the fat cells and increases rapidly and soon the fat cells are replaced by cancerous cells. Fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) may be a treatment and stop to the spread of the cancer. Researchers now conclude that FABP4 can be an appropriate treatment and may stop the spread of ovarian cancer through the omentum.
The article, “Fat Cells in Abdomen Fuel Spread of Ovarian Cancer”, includes many things that are supported by clear evidence and several things that are not. In class, we learned about two types of proteins and a generic fatty acid. Proteins are needed by the body for growth and repair while, a three fatty acids and one glycerol make up one lipid molecule.
If the treatment using FABP4, is successful for people suffering for ovarian cancer, the amount of people, especially woman, with ovarian cancer will decrease greatly.
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