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Paneer Preparation And Its Estimation For Protein, Fat And Total Solids

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The dairy area in the India has demonstrated surprising advancement in the previous decade and India has now turned out to be one of the biggest makers of milk and esteem included milk items on the planet. The dairy division has created through co-agents in numerous parts of the nation. Amid 1997-98, the States (Delhi-Haryana-Uttar Pradesh) had 17574 million tones generation limit, which rose to 29719 million tons constantly 2012. Notwithstanding numerous handling plants, numerous administration co-agent social orders and chilling focuses have being made. About the Indian dairy Industry In India, the dairy division assumes an essential part in the nation’s financial improvement and constitutes an imperative fragment of the rustic monetary. As indicated by inquire about report “Indian Dairy Industry Analysis” India is world’s biggest milk producers bookkeeping of around 17% of the worldwide milk product. Plus, India is additionally one of biggest purchasers of milk. Because of rich healthful characteristics, the utilization of dairy item has being developing exponentially in the nation.

Mother Dairy is the main brand of milk in India, and additionally in Asia. MD orders 40% piece of the overall industry in the sorted out division, and around Delhi, basically in view of their consistence quality and administrations. Whatever is the emergency surges, transport, strike, check in time, and so on.

It was the principal dairy in the nation to execute ISO 14031 (Environment execution assessment) venture. It has taken up the idea of the aggregate beneficial support entire heartedly.

VISION: With add up to responsibility and cooperation, It will endeavor to charm their clients with quality items and administrations.

They make a situation where representatives feel upbeat to work. Through development, predictable learning and persistent change, they could accomplish managed development and greatness and give gainful comes back to ranchers and different partners.

MISSION: “They are the market pioneer of liquid drain in Delhi. Their central goal is to hold the initiative and further serve their clients in and around Delhi by giving quality drain and select dairy and sustenance items.


During my internship at Mother Dairy, I came across their mission and vision as well as their plans which led them to the leading position today. Their mission is to serve the farmers, rural India and their consumers with complete determination and pride. Its tagline also says, “Happy Food, Happy People”.

Mother Dairy plant in Patparganj region of New Delhi where pasteurization of milk is done which is sold as tokened milk at Mother Dairy Booths. Along with this, complete quality testing of raw milk, skim milk and pasteurized milk along with ice cream quality test is also performed. Preparation of different ice-creams is done in this plant.

During my training period, I came across the product development planning and operation at the mother dairy , Patpargang’s innovation centre. I interned at the research and development department of mother dairy where I gained experience.

Product Profile

Project work:

Paneer preparation and its estimation for protein, fat and total solids

pH change of milk due to addition of disodium phosphate, sugar and skimmed milk powder


Paneer is a product which is made by coagulating milk with amount of acid and then filtering the coagulum and seperating the whey and coagulum is further pressed to obtain blocks of pneer.

Paneer is mainly prepared from buffalo milk and used for manufacture of a variety of culinary dishes.

Paneer is sold as blocks or slices, it also refer to Indian fresh cheese. It was observed, 5% of the milk produced in India are converted into paneer and growth rate of paneer production is 13% per year.

FSSAI states that, paneer is the product obtained from the cow or buffalo milk or a combination of both, by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid, or citric acid. It shall not contain more than 70% of moisture and milk fat content shall not be less than 50% of the dry matter.

Factors affecting quality and production of paneer :

Type of milk: The cow milk paneer is soft and fragile and during cooking it tend to break. Paneer made from skimmed milk has a chewy, rubber like and hard body.

Quality of milk: To obtain a good quality paneer, the milk must be fresh and free from off flavours. Growth of microorganisms should be minimized to restrict the off-flavour .

Heat treatment of milk:

The milk is heated to 90°C for 10 mins without holding in order to maximize the total solids recovery.

Whey proteins especially β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin form a complex with ĸ-casein and retain with the curd and increase the yield of the product. The high heat treatment gives desirable cooked flavour by controlled liberation of sulphydryl compounds.

Coagulation temperature:

Moisture content of paneer is affected. An increase in temperature from 60°C to 86°C decreases the moisture in paneer from 59 to 49%.


Milk is a white fluid delivered by the mammary organs of animals like cow and buffalo. It is the essential wellspring of sustenance for newborn child of warm blooded animals (counting people who are breastfed) before they can process different kinds of nourishment. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which conveys the mother’s antibodies to its young and can decrease the danger of numerous ailments. It contains numerous different supplements including protein and lactose. Dairy ranches created around 730 million tons of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world’s biggest maker of milk, and is the main exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it trades couple of other milk products too.

Milk is nothing but an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules inside a water-based liquid that contains broke down sugars and protein totals with minerals.

Individuals process milk into an assortment of items, for example, cream, spread, yogurt, kefir, frozen yogurt, and cheddar. The pH of milk ranges from 6.4 to 6.9. Milk fluctuates in synthesis, yet has a comparative pH.


Milk (2L)

Heat at 90 degree celsius and hold 10 minutes

Make solution of GDL

(17.5gm GDL in 800gm water)

Heat GDL at 85 degree celsius

Add GDL solution slowly to milk at 88 degree celsius

Pour the coagulate in muslin cloth

Press the coagulate for 1 hr with 6kg weight

Dip the paneer block in chilled water for 1/2 hr



Preparation of flavoured milk using disodium phosphate


Add skimmed milk powder, 80gm

Mix with Silverson (mixer)

(check PH)

Add sugar, (9.35%)

Mix with Silverson (check PH)

Divide in 4 of 500ml each


500ml+0.5gm DSP

500ml+0.75gm DSP

500ml+1gm DSP



DSP: Disodium Phosphate 1.3 QUALITY TEST FOR PANEER

Gerber method

Principle: Sample is mixed with sulphuric acid and iso amyl alcohol was taken in a Gerber tube, permitting dissolution of protein and release of fat. Tubes are centrifuged and the fat rising into calibrated part of tube is measured as percent of fat content sample. The method is suitable as a routine test.

FORMULA: (Butyrometer reading * 20) / 3


Take 1.69g of grated paneer sample into a beaker.

Addd 1ml distilled hot water and 5ml of sulphuric acid to it.

Mix the contents well using glass rod and pour into butyrometer.

Add remaining 4ml hot water and 5ml sulphuric acid to beaker, wash it and add to butyrometer.

Add 1ml of amyl alcohol to butyrometer and close it with a lock stopper.

Transfer butyrometer to water bath at temperature 65 degree C for 5 mins.

Centrifuge the butyrometer for 5 mins and again keep it in water bath at same measurements.

Record the reading of fat column in the stem of butyrometer.

Kjeldahl method

Principle: Sample is digested with sulphuric acid which decomposes the organic substance by oxidation to liberate the reduced nitrogen as ammonium sulphate. It is then distilled with sodium hydroxide which converts the ammonium salt to ammonia. The liberated ammonia absorbed in weak acid solution is back titrated with standard alkali using methylene red as indicator.

FORMULA: (Normality of NAOH *1.4*6.38*(B-S) ) / Wt of sample


DIGESTION: Take 2-2.5g of sample directly into the digestion tube and place the tube in kjeldahl stand.

Add 5g of digestion mix(copper sulphate + potassium sulphate in 1:50) and 10g of sulphuric acid and leave for digestion.

Leave the tubes in for digestion until bluish green colour appears.

After the colour appearance put the tubes in cooling stand and leave them until fumes disappear and colour becomes clear.

If black particles are still available then digest for 1 hr.

DISTILLATION: Check the water supply in distillation unit.

Run the apparatus once without same to make it ready.

Place the tubes containing digested samples in tube chamber and 250ml slack containing sulphuric acid solution 0.1N and few drops of indicator solution for collecting distillate.

TITRATION: Titrate against 0.1N NAOH.

Once the cloud changes from pinkish to green, note the burette reading that is titrate value.

Titrate value of sample titration is subtracted from blank sample titrate value.

Indicator used: methyl red + methylene blue (equal volumes)

Total solids method

Principle : Sample was taken in a petri dish which was pre heated with sand in the desiccator at 102 degrees for 1 hr. After cooling,2-3 gm of sample was taken and the weight was noted and was made into a paste and heated on water bath until moisture is gone and then keeps in oven and measure the weight at each step.

FORMULA: TS = (100* (W3 – W1)) / (W2 – W1)


Pre heat an open dish with 5g of sand and stirring rod together at 102 degree C.

Place the lid on dish and immediately transfer to desiccator, slow cooling at room temperature and weigh the dish with lid (W1)

Weigh about 2-3g of grated sample of paneer in the dish and weigh (W2).

Add few drops of distilled water and saturate sand and mix the sample using glass rod and spread the sample evenly over bottom of the dish.

Place the dish uncovered on water bath till water evaporates.

After this place the dish again inside oven for 4hrs to dry it.

After 4hrs transfer it to desiccator and allow it to cool.

Heat again for 1 hr and then cover the dish with lid and immediately transfer to desiccator.

After cool, weigh the dishes (W3).

Experimental analysis

The three different paneer samples were estimated using 3 experimental procedures:

Determination of Fat- GERBER METHOD

Determination of Protein- KJELDAHL METHOD

Determination of Total Solids

Sample summary:

ICCL/805/193: raw milk

ICCL/805/194: double toned milk

ICCL/805/195: skimmed milk

Sensory analysis of paneer samples

Sensory analysis of paneer samples were conducted and each sample was compared with the standard paneer of mother dairy on the basis of appearance, taste, and odour and overall assessment was made. The paneer made with raw milk was praised the most.

Skimmed milk paneer: 93AM1Y

Double toned milk paneer: 86GS8W

Raw milk paneer: 29PR1X

Market paneer: 83DE6Z

Inference of pH of Milk

The effect of PH change was observed and recorded due to addition of additives.

This research was done to record the effect of skimmed milk powder (SMP) , Sugar and disodium phosphate (DSP) on the PH of milk.

Final PH was recorded after the samples were autoclaved at 121 degree celsius without hold.

The milk samples were also compared with the water sample and degree of variation in the PH was observed.

Final PH of water had no change after autoclaving while milk samples had a decrease in PH level, the milk sample with highest PH before autoclaving had the lowest PH after.


The aim of mother dairy is the welfare of the society by providing quality products to its consumers at an affordable price and best quality with variations in taste and nutrition. This report contains the information about the product development via milk. The data has been analysed by presenting it in the form of report; the experimental analysis were performed and have been included for the same. The results and findings have also been made for the organization to help management in their decisions.

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