Precision Farming as an Answer to The Climate Change for Successful Agricultural Production in India

About this sample

About this sample


6 pages /

2893 words

Downloads: 31

6 pages /

2893 words

Downloads: 31

downloadDownload printPrint

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Technologies used in Precision Farming
  3. Scope of Precision farming in Indian Agriculture System
  4. Way Ahead
  5. Conclusion
  6. References

'Precision Farming' as the terms are only more than just sufficient to define the whole concept ie., farming with absolute accuracy using various tools like satellites, GPS, GIS etc. Indian agriculture is vulnerable to various climatic disturbances and thus even after a daunting hard work the fate of farmers totally remains in the darkness of uncertainty. Precision farming could be a viable approach to raise the Indian farmers from the mud of the bullock kart to the heights of satellites and IT. Though there are a lot of lacunas which are needed to be taken care of before fully adopting it in the Indian farming system. But the slow but steady progress of the Indian Agriculture Researchers are a proof that this utopian dream will surely come true soon. Keeping this imagination in mind this chapter is written with a very brief introduction to Precision Farming, its pros and cons, its aspects and limitations in Indian scenario and what further could be expected from this technology.

'Why Violent Video Games Shouldn't Be Banned'?


'Agriculture is the riskiest business in India' the words by the greatest man the father of Green Revolution in India Dr. M S Swaminathan clearly indicates the vulnerability of the Indian agriculture. It is well understood from the daily news of increasing farmers suicide cases in India, the standard of their livelihood. The farmers spend more than what they should without knowing what and how to do exactly and end up getting lower than what is expected by them in the end of harvest. This leads to the beginning of his miseries as he could not repay the money he rented for the farming, and gradually his situations gets worse by time in lack of proper knowledge about his own field. In India most of the farmers are practicing the same orthodox and unscientific ways of farming. They use everything superfluously from the beginning of the entire process, they plough the land without knowing that to how much depth they should till, they ignore all the variability factor of soil and apply fertilizers, nutrient and irrigation un-judiciously, sow seeds without following any particular norm or scientific design, spray chemicals just by a course walk through the field and without proper scrutiny. All this haphazard and redundant operations performed by the farmers costs a lot to them as most of the hard work done and the capital spent may not have been needed at all for that particular piece of land.

The present government aims to double the farm income by 2022 and no doubt they have tried to do so by its various measures taken to increase the outlay for agriculture, creation of market linkages through (eNAM), ensuring availability of quality seeds to the farmers, implementing soil health cards and raising minimum support price (MSP) for few selected crops. But considering the present technologies followed by the Indian farmers it will not take less than 25 years to achieve the goal of doubling the income and getting it in just five year is just an utopian dream.

All the operations which is being performed by our farmers are necessary but still they are getting a lower yield, it raises a question that is 'where are we missing to observe?' and 'what is needed to be done?'. The answers are quite simple that is ' Precision', we the farmers of India lack precision and data based information in all our farm operations. Thus, blindly follow the legacy of our ancestors which are not only outdated but are also tedious and costly, which makes farming very risky. But with precision farming it does not have to be. Here, all the decisions taken for the farm operations are based on proper scientific design and valid data and technology which are specific for a particular piece of land considering all the variables of the present situation. This helps to interpret a proper and value decision by the farmers and brings more accuracy in every action they take.

Precision farming can be defined as a modern approach to farm managing system based on information and technology which identifies, analyse and manages the variability within the fields for optimum profitability, sustainability and protection of resources. It targets not to obtain same or higher yield from everywhere but to improve the productivity on long term basis by managing and distributing the resources based on site specific needs hence precision farming can also be called 'site specific farming'. It manages and customize a small piece of land at a time with in the field rather than considering the entire field as a whole. This technology is helping farmers thorough out the globe to enhance the effectiveness of their input. Not only this some enterprising farmers have even gone to the extent of deploying Blockchain technology to interpret the volumes of data they have generated from their fields which has generated a new idea which is called ‘digital farming’. The key component of this technology is the data or information obtained from a wide array of items such as control systems, sensors, robotics, drones, autonomous vehicles, variable rate technology, GPS guidance, GPS-based soil sampling, automated hardware, telemetric, and software.

John Deere was the first to introduce this technology in 1990's by introducing Tractors fitted with GPS guided sensors. These tractors are capable of tilling the land to the exact depth that the crop needs and automatically steers the equipment based on the coordinates of a field. This in turn results in less wastage of seeds, fertilizers, fuel and time. The satellite imaging can help to determine the nutrient content of the soil and divide the field into various quadrants to allot specific operations for each quadrant. Also, the crops can be irrigated using GPS sensor backed drip irrigation systems along with this pesticide application, fertigation and harvesting at proper maturity of crop can also be done.

Before adopting precision farming it is important to have a proper knowledge of good management system which will be viable both economically and ecologically. Like every other things precision farming too have its own issues related to its benefits and barriers for its adoption. The following are some advantages and disadvantages of precision farming:


  1. Reduces resources wastages as it provides proper opportunities for resource management.
  2. Reduces unnecessary chemical in the form of fertilizers and pesticides usage in the agriculture system. which eventually minimize the nitrate leaching into the ground water and contaminating it.
  3. Improves efficiency of irrigation water, thus reduces water loss.
  4. Yield and soil character of a particular field can be mapped and the field can be divided into small units according to their unique requirements, which are much more easier to maintain.
  5. Promotes sustainable agricultural development by improving productivity and reducing soil degradation due to excess chemical use.
  6. Using viable production system based on the GIS based technology improves quality and quantity of the product and reduces production cost.


  1. Collecting and analysing the huge amount of data is a difficult task.
  2. To implement a specific farming system based on GIS may take proper and careful study of several year before it could be established.
  3. The high cost involved in gathering the information may be a barrier for the small farmers of India.
  4. In India precision farming is still in its natal phase and it requires expert advice based on Indian economic condition before its implementation.

Technologies used in Precision Farming

Precision farming is all about collecting, analyzing and utilizing the data to frame a proper management schedule for the agricultural field. To achieve this various technological tools are utilized. Some of these tools are mentioned below.

1. Remote Sensing

This technique has been used in agriculture since 1960's and can be an invaluable tool for monitoring and management of resources(10). It can be defined as acquisition or gathering of information about any entity or any phenomenon without making any real physical contact with the same (6). It helps to determine various factors like crop situation and stage, soil fertility and moisture, mapping based on various resources, determination of any weather hazards like flood or drought etc. This information helps in decision-making for the farm and can come from several sources including drones and satellites or hand held devices. It basically works by generating images of the field by capturing the near infra red rays emitted by that field. This images can be then utilized to develop a spot treatment plan that optimizes the use of agricultural resources.

2. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

GPS is a network of manmade satellites orbiting around the earth, which provides information in the form of signals. These are received by the GPS receivers devices on the earth and then the information are processed using a software which is called GIS. These technologies enables coupling of real-time data collection with accurate position information which leads to the efficient manipulation and analysis of a large amount of geospatial data. The data send by the GPS and the data received by GPS receiver may not me accurate all the time hence it is needed to be corrected before use. The uncorrected data of GPS is having an accuracy of about 300 ft. The correction of data is done by comparing it with land based or satellite based signals. This provide the accurate positional correction called 'differential correction' whose accuracy is 63- 10 ft. In agriculture it is used for farm planning, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance, crop scouting, variable rate applications, and yield mapping. It also allows farmers to work during low visibility field conditions such as rain, dust, fog, and darkness.

3. Variable Rate Technology (VRT)

This technology focuses on the automated application of materials viz., chemicals and fertilizers or seeds to a particular place based on data that is collected by sensors, maps, and GPS. This technology include use of drones and satellites, to artificial intelligence (AI) and hyperspectral imaging (7). It basically works on three steps: i) Zoning/Management zones - Separating the part of the field where different materials is to be used., ii) Selection of VRA type- There are two types of VRA map based and sensor based. In map based  first a map is generated of the landscape and inputted into the system then all further farm activities are decided. In sensor bases the technology itself integrates sensors that can automatically detect the data that will help it decide which fertilizer should be applied., iii) Type of data/ imagery be used.

4. Computer Based Applications

It has similar applications as the above mentioned technologies. But the limitations of these software systems is that many a times they deliver a narrow value that doesn’t allow data to be used for making bigger farm decisions and another is that the applications are poor user interfaces which makes it difficult to integrate the information they provide with other data sources to enrich and show significant value to farmers (10).

5. Yield monitoring and Mapping

It was introduced n early 1990's and refers to the process of collecting geo-referenced data on crop yield and characteristics, such as moisture content, while the crop is being harvested. Main components of the system includes: Grain flow sensor to determine the volume of harvest; Grain moisture sensor; Clean grain elevator speed sensor to improve accuracy of grain flow sensor; GPS antenna; Yield monitor display with a GPS receiver which records data and geo-references; Header position sensor; and Travel speed sensor. The yield calculated at each field location can be displayed on a map using a Geographic Information System (GIS) software package. These are essential for making sound management decisions and also all the other environmental factors are also considered while making such decisions along with thorough study of several years data. It helps to determine the effect of the input given on the field.

6. Crop Scouting

In laymen's language crop scouting can be defined as travelling through a crop field while making frequent stops for observations to see how the crops of different area are growing. But scouting manually possess higher chances of error hence GPS has now been incorporated into this operation, which are much more efficient and accurate. It is crucial for each stage of the crop growth. It helps the farmer to determine the weed type and their population in field, seed rate and sowing depth can also be determined by this, early pest and disease detection etc.

Scope of Precision farming in Indian Agriculture System

The concept of precision farming was introduced in India by 'Tata Kisan Kendra' and four renowned institutes Space Applications Centre of ISRO, M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, and Project Directorate of Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, has been working in direction since long so that the technologies could be made more relevant to the Indian farmers situation.

  1. Refinement of the system according to the Indian scenario and its wider application proved at reasonable costs can help to overcome the defencelessness of Indian agriculture on the weather, reduce the production cost and increase the productivity. Thus will help to improve the livelihood of the poor farmers.
  2. Site specific application of water and fertilizers will reduce the environment loading of the chemicals and other soil depleting phenomenon viz., soil salinity and acidity. For eg. execs use of fertilizer and irrigation in Punjab and Haryana, pesticides used in cotton field in Maharashtra and fertilizers application in plantations of South India have led to various disasters on mankind. Application of precision farming will stop such incidences.
  3. Improve the efficiency of irrigation water thus will also solve the problem of crop loss in drought prone areas.
  4. Farmers will be able to mitigate various climate stress like drought, flood or new pest or disease invasion using forecast.
  5. It will improve the opportunities for skilled employment in agriculture field by offering precision farming related services on a pay per use basis.
  6. Moreover this new technology has the potential to raise India from the mud of bullock kart to  advanced heights of satellites and IT and could be a possible way to convert the green revolution into ever green revolution.

Challenges in adopting Precision Farming in India:

  1. In India most of the farmers possess very small piece of land for cultivation this limits him from economic gains from the present available precision farming technology.
  2. Still the farmers are not aware of this technology and they hesitate to take the risk of adopting anything new.
  3. Lack of infrastructure, poor socioeconomic condition of the farmers, negligence of the government officials.

Way Ahead

Precision Farming comes at a cost of 2 lakhs per hectare(9) and adapting such technology for a typical small Indian farms and illiterate farmers is a challenge too, but recently various models have been developed to deal with the issue. The small farmers with financial limitations need not to purchase any farm equipment instead they can hire them from various custom hiring centres in various States or from other private initiatives like Mahindra group’s Trringo App or TAFE’s J-Farm Services etc (2). The role of Government is very crucial to popularize the precision farming among the Indian farmers; They should reorient the subsidies to the technology based farming.; various capacity building and extension works should be organize to teach the technique to the farmers.; proper markets are needed to be developed to absorb the surplus production which is expected from this technology.; more emphasis should be given to post harvest technology and value addition of the produce so that there should not be any wastage. As the growers will adopt precision faring the next step could be inclusion of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Agriculture. Though the role of humans in decision making could not be replaced by any other thing but including the AI will definitely make the process much more easier.

Get a custom paper now from our expert writers.


It is true that it seems like an utopian dream that an Indian farmer going to his field on a GPS supported tractor which sends the signal into the sky to the satellite and which in return locate its position on the globe and sends all the information to its GIS supported computer fitted on the tractor. Further with the help of the AI analyse all the data and tells the farmer what to do how to do too with full precision. But it cannot be denied that though the popularization of this technology is not that fast as it is in the developed countries but its progress is slow and steady and it is for sure that the day will come soon this intimidating dream will come true.


  • A K Singh. Precision Farming Lecture. Accessed on April 10, 2018.
  • B D Kamble. 2009. Precision farming in Indian Agricultural Scenario. Geospatial World. Published on November 9, 2019. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • Crop scouting. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • Extension. 2015. What is the difference between GPS and GIS?. Published on May 27, 2015. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • 2018. Agriculture. Modified on March 6 2018. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • Grind GIS. 2018. Remote Sensing Applications in Agriculture. Published on February 11, 2018. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • I Igor. 2018. Variable Rate Application in Precision Agriculture. Medium. Published on January 3, 2018. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • AS Express. 2018. Precision farming in India- Features, Merits, Demerits and Challenges. Published on August 2018. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • N Madhavan. 2018. Precission Farming is a game changer. The Hindu, Business Line. Published on October 25 2018. Accessed on April 10, 219.
  • R Schmaltz. 2017. What is Precision Agriculture?. Agfunder News. Published on April 24, 2017. accessed on April 10, 2019.
  • Yield Monitoring and mapping. Accessed on April 10, 2019.
Image of Alex Wood
This essay was reviewed by
Alex Wood

Cite this Essay

Precision Farming As An Answer To The Climate Change For Successful Agricultural Production In India. (2021, November 10). GradesFixer. Retrieved September 21, 2023, from
“Precision Farming As An Answer To The Climate Change For Successful Agricultural Production In India.” GradesFixer, 10 Nov. 2021,
Precision Farming As An Answer To The Climate Change For Successful Agricultural Production In India. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 Sept. 2023].
Precision Farming As An Answer To The Climate Change For Successful Agricultural Production In India [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2021 Nov 10 [cited 2023 Sept 21]. Available from:
Keep in mind: This sample was shared by another student.
  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours
Write my essay

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled


Where do you want us to send this sample?

    By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.


    Be careful. This essay is not unique

    This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

    Download this Sample

    Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts


    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.



    Please check your inbox.

    We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!


    Get Your
    Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!


    We can help you get a better grade and deliver your task on time!

    • Instructions Followed To The Letter
    • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
    • Unique And Plagiarism Free
    Order your paper now