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The endocrine and nervous systems have common functions such as internal communication and regulating functions of the body. The two systems are capable of slow and fast reactions to stimulus. The nervous system sends electrical impulses to each portion of the body to regulate bodily functions whereas the endocrine system uses chemical signals to control bodily functions. The response to stimulus for the nervous system is local while the endocrine is spread widely. White blood cells, or leukocytes, function within our body as a line of defense against infections. There are two types, granulocytes and agranulocytes— three granulocytes are basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils while the two agranulocytes are lymphocytes and monocytes. Whenever there is an infection, whether bacterial or viral, there will be an increased number of white blood cells in a differential white blood count test. Neutrophils are the most abundant in bacterial infection to perform phagocytosis on invading bacteria. The tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic valves of the human heart control the flow of blood through one chamber to another and prevent backflow of the blood. The heart can encounter problems such as stenosis or regurgitation should the heart not function properly.
The endocrine system and the nervous system are important when it comes to the internal communication of the body. These two systems share common functions between each other but also have key differences in their mechanisms of action. They have common chemicals, examples like dopamine and norepinephrine, that serve as both hormones and neurotransmitters. The two systems also have similarities in how their messengers will affect their target cells. They both function together through regulation, where the neurons can trigger hormone secretion and hormones will either stimulate or inhibit neurons.
On the other hand of the mechanisms of the endocrine and nervous systems, there are also the numerous key differences. The endocrine system is able to communicate through the hormones while the nervous system has electrical impulses and their neurotransmitters. The endocrine system release hormones throughout the body through distribution of hormones into the bloodstream, allowing for widespread effects. The neurotransmitters are released at the synapses of target cells within the body and have local effects in those specific target cells. Hormones generally are slow to react to stimuli, taking anywhere from seconds or days, and continue to react even when the initial stimulus has stopped. Neurotransmitters are quick to react and do not take more than a few seconds to do so, stopping once the stimulus has been stopped.
Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells, provide protection from infectious microorganisms and pathogens. The five types of leukocytes are neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes (Openstax, 2013). Neutrophils are the most abundant of the five, aggressive when they are against antibacterial cells. When afflicted with bacterial infection, neutrophils are elevated in white blood count, as these types of leukocytes are attracted to areas that have infection and inflammation. They act with phagocytosis, it is where they will digest the bacteria that they encounter. Eosinophils are common when there is a parasitic infection while basophils help with the attraction of neutrophils and anti-coagulation. Neutrophils will have easier access to the infection with the help of basophils. Lymphocytes are important when it comes to infectious diseases as they can produce an immune response while monocytes are useful for inflammation and viral infections.
The heart has four valves, the tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary and aortic valves. These valves function to create the flow of the blood that enters the heart between each atrium and their ventricles. The tricuspid and mitral are referred to as the atrioventricular valves, respectfully as the right AV and left AV valves. The two valves together control the opening between each atrium and ventricle and ensure that blood does not try to go backwards into the atrium as the ventricle contracts.
The pulmonary and aortic valves are known as the semilunar valves. They are in between the ventricles and great arteries of the heart. The pylmonary valve controls the opening from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk while the aortic valve controls the opening from the left ventricle into the aorta.
Blood flows from the right atrium to the right atrium to the right AV valve, then into the right ventricle to the pulmonary valve that will then go through the pulmonary trunk where it will continue on to the lungs which allows the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen. Blood returns from the lungs and to the left atrium where the blood flows through the left AV valve and into the left ventricle which sends that blood to the aortic valve to the ascending aorta, allowing for that oxygen to go through the systemic circuit in the body.
Should there be heart valve problems, where the valves fail to close properly or there is backflow of the blood within the heart, these result in stenosis or regurgitation. Stenosis is when there is a narrow opening of the valve in the heart which leads to interference of the flow of the blood in the heart. Regurgitation is failure in the valves closing properly which leads to either leaks or backflow of the blood in the heart.
In conclusion, the endocrine and the nervous system are comparable in their functions but do oppose each other with their mechanisms. White blood cells have incredibly important roles in immune function. The heart contains four valves that must work together to create a continuous flow of blood and if they are unable to with disruption in the circulatory system, it can lead to issues such as stenosis or regurgitation.
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