Structure Of Pneumococcal Bacteria: [Essay Example], 752 words GradesFixer

Haven't found the right essay?

Get an expert to write your essay!


Professional writers and researchers


Sources and citation are provided


3 hour delivery


Haven't found the right essay?

Get an expert to write your essay!

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Structure Of Pneumococcal Bacteria

Print Download now

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

Download PDF

Early observations by application of specific strains revealed that virulent pneumococci were surrounded by a structure now recognized as the capsule. The capsule played a central role in the discovery of the ‘transforming principle’ since it was using this genetic trait and this microorganism where DNA and genetic information were first linked. (R. Lopez et al., 2004) As in other Gram positive bacteria, the pneumococcal cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan and teichoic acid. A predominant component of teichoic acid is the C-polysaccharide which is covalently bound to the peptidoglycan layer and distributed both on its inner and outer side. (M. Kalin et al.,)

More recently, it has been proposed to develop substances that specifically inhibit bacterial virulence such as ‘‘antipathogenic’’ drugs, in contrast to antibacterial drugs, do not kill bacteria or stop their growth and are assumed not to lead to the development of resistant strains.(M. Otto et al., 2004) The pneumococcal polysaccharide capsule is crucial for virulence, primarily by protecting the bacteria against phagocytosis. Capsular gene cassette transformation, leading to a change in the capsule specificity, is a common event in such antibiotic resistant clones, and possibly also in more natural clones. (M. Kalin et al.,)Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia in children and adults, and the most common cause of otitis media in infants and young children (Lynch JP et al., 2015).

Globally, pneumonia remains the most common cause of death in children younger than 5 years of age, causing 1.6 million deaths annually, Black RE (2015). Despite routine microbiological testing, the microbial etiology of CAP is not always identified, but with current laboratory investigations a diagnosis usually can be made in up to 60% of patients (C. Feldman et al., 2014).The first report regarding the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in Asia was from Hong Kong, and a subsequent case-control study showed that the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nosocomial origin of the bacteria, residence in a nursing home, and exposure to fluoroquinolones were independently associated with levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniaecolonization or infection].

In a Taiwanese hospital, rates of levofloxacin nonsusceptibility of S. pneumoniae increased significantly from 1.2% in 2001 to 4.2% in 2007 The ANSORP study showed that the resistance rates to fluoroquinolones were 1.7%, 0.4%, 1.5%, and 13.4% for levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively, in Asian countries. Isolates from Taiwan (6.5%) and South Korea (4.6%) showed the highest rates of levofloxacin resistance a case of bacteremic pneumonia caused by an extremely drug-resistant strain of S. pneumoniae, nonsusceptible to at least one agent in all classes but vancomycin and linezolid, was reported in Korea (jae- hoon – song et aL 2013)

The impact of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus has not been evaluated and is likely to depend upon many factors including whether antibiotic treatment is consistent or non consistent with the susceptibility profile of the infecting strain. Discordant treatment may result in delayed cure, multiple outpatient visits or hospitalization, and increases in morbidity, mortality and cost (Reynolds et al., 2014).Analysis of capsule switch constructs showed that strain to strain differences in survival were due to capsule type rather than genetic background. The addition of glucose was sufficient to rescue the survival defect of the capsule deficient derivative demonstrating that in the absence of capsule survival depends upon nutrient availability. (Shigeto Hamaguchi et al., 2018).

Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and also associated with the properties that includes carriage prevalence and virulence. determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using a genomic data (Chrispin Chaguza, et al., 2016)The levels of antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae isolates in many

Asian countries are among the highest in the world during the early part of this century. Isolates from Vietnam showed the highest prevalence of penicillin resistance at 71.4%;and erythromycin resistance at 92.1%. Isolates from Hong Kong showed the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance at 11.8%. Resistance to penicillin ranged from 38.6% among isolates from Taiwan to 71.4% among isolates from Vietnam. Erythromycin resistance was from 73.9% (China) to 92.1 % (Vietnam) while resistance to ciprofloxacin was from 6.5% (Korea) to 11.8% (Hong Kong). Data from the Philippines showed that 18.2% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin while 9.1% were ciprofloxacin resistant. Statistics from the Philippines’ Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program (ARSP) progress reports also showed resistance rates of pneumococci to cotrimoxazole to be higher (from 14% in 2006 to 15% in 2011) relative to other antibiotics.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

100% plagiarism free

Sources and citations are provided

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

GradesFixer. (2019, November, 26) Structure Of Pneumococcal Bacteria. Retrived June 3, 2020, from
"Structure Of Pneumococcal Bacteria." GradesFixer, 26 Nov. 2019, Accessed 3 June 2020.
GradesFixer. 2019. Structure Of Pneumococcal Bacteria., viewed 3 June 2020, <>
GradesFixer. Structure Of Pneumococcal Bacteria. [Internet]. November 2019. [Accessed June 3, 2020]. Available from:

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.


Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec

Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email
get unique paper
*Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
download public sample

Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you



Your essay sample has been sent.

Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

thanks-icon Order now

Hi there!

Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

Check it out!
Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.