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The de?nition of quality depends on the role of the people de?ning it. Most consumers have a dif?cult time de?ning quality, but they know it when they see it. For example, although you probably have an opinion as to which manufacturer of athletic shoes provides the highest quality, it would probably be dif?cult for you to de?ne your quality standard in precise terms. Also, your friends may have different opinions regarding which athletic shoes are of highest quality.
The dif?culty in de?ning quality exists regardless of product, and this is true for both manufacturing and service organizations. Think about how dif?cult it may be to de?ne quality for products such as airline services, child day-care facilities, college classes, or even OM textbooks. Further complicating the issue is that the meaning of quality has changed over time. Today, there is no single universal de?nition of quality. Some people view quality as “performance to standards.”Others view it as “meeting the customer’s needs”or “satisfying the customer.”Let’s look at some of the more common de?nitions of quality.
Conformance to speci?cations measures how well the product or service meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers. For example, the dimensions of a machine part may be speci?ed by its design engineers as 3.05 inches. This would mean that the target dimension is 3 inches but the dimensions can vary between 2.95 and 3.05 inches. Similarly, the wait for hotel room service may be speci?ed as 20 minutes, but there may be an acceptable delay of an additional 10 minutes. Also, consider the amount of light delivered by a 60 watt light bulb. If the bulb delivers 50 watts it does not conform to speci?cations. As these examples illustrate, conformance to speci?cation is directly measurable, though it may not be directly related to the consumer’s idea of quality.
Fitness for use focuses on how well the product performs its intended function or use. For example, a Mercedes Benz and a Jeep Cherokee both meet a ?tness for use de?nition if one considers transportation as the intended function. However, if the de?nition becomes more speci?c and assumes that the intended use is for transportation on mountain roads and carrying ?shing gear, the Jeep Cherokee has a greater ?tness for use. You can also see that ?tness for use is a user-based de?nition in that it is intended to meet the needs of a speci?c user group.
Value for price paid is a de?nition of quality that consumers often use for product or service usefulness. This is the only de?nition that combines economics with consumer criteria; it assumes that the de?nition of quality is price sensitive. For example, suppose that you wish to sign up for a personal ?nance seminar and discover that the same class is being taught at two different colleges at signi?cantly different tuition rates. If you take the less expensive seminar, you will feel that you have received greater value for the price.
Support services provided are often how the quality of a product or service is judged. Quality does not apply only to the product or service itself; it also applies to the people, processes, and organizational environment associated with it. For example, the quality of a university is judged not only by the quality of staff and course offerings, but also by the ef?ciency and accuracy of processing paperwork.
The concept of quality has existed for many years, though its meaning has changed and evolved over time. In the early twentieth century, quality management meant inspecting products to ensure that they met speci?cations. In the 1940s, during World War II, quality became more statistical in nature. Statistical sampling techniques were used to evaluate quality, and quality control charts were used to monitor the production process. In the 1960s, with the help of so-called “quality gurus” the concept took on a broader meaning. Quality began to be viewed as something that encompassed the entire organization, not only the production process. Since all functions were responsible for product quality and all shared the costs of poor quality, quality was seen as a concept that affected the entire organization.
The meaning of quality for businesses changed dramatically in the late 1970s. Before then quality was still viewed as something that needed to be inspected and corrected. However, in the 1970s and 1980s many U.S. industries lost market share to foreign competition. In the auto industry, manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda became major players. In the consumer goods market, companies such as Toshiba and Sony led the way. These foreign competitors were producing lower-priced products with considerably higher quality. To survive, companies had to make major changes in their quality programs. Many hired consultants and instituted quality training programs for their employees. A new concept of quality was emerging. One result is that quality began to have a strategic meaning.
Today, successful companies understand that quality provides a competitive advantage. They put the customer ?rst and de?ne quality as meeting or exceeding customer expectations. Since the 1970s, competition based on quality has grown in importance and has generated tremendous interest, concern, and enthusiasm. Companies in every line of business are focusing on improving quality in order to be more competitive. In many industries quality excellence has become a standard for doing business. Companies that do not meet this standard simply will not survive. As you will see later in the chapter, the importance of quality is demonstrated by national quality awards and quality certi?cations that are coveted by businesses.
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