The Factors Surrounding The Theories of Coaching

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About this sample

About this sample


Words: 2626 |

Pages: 6|

14 min read

Published: Nov 20, 2018

Words: 2626|Pages: 6|14 min read

Published: Nov 20, 2018

Table of contents

  1. Theories of Coaching
  2. Cognitive Behavioural Theory
    CBT in Practice
  3. LTAD Theory
  4. Positive Psychology Theory
    Coaching Styles Based On UK Environment
    Practice and Talent Development
    Talent ID System
    Development of Coaching Philosophy, Skills for Life and Work

In all the games may it be soccer, basketball, football, netball and hockey among others, there exist coaches who train the participants in these games in order to better their performance. Being a coach is a noble position that one has to be dedicated to observe the weaknesses of the players and turn them into success. However, there are various factors surrounding the coaching that this theory will give an insight into.

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Theories of Coaching

Cognitive Behavioural Theory

This theory involves action and thinking. The theory was developed by Albert Ellis and it is based on the idea that learning occurs through an observable association existing between a stimulus and a response. BF Skinner, a well-known behavioural theorist described operant or reinforced conditioning as a behavioural modification process where a behaviour is as a result of a consequence. The essence of this theory is on the process of thinking and making choices in the determination of a behaviour inclusive of what we perceive as an event. Ellis, the founder of this theory also pioneered the Rational Emotive behavioural theory which tries to explain how maladaptive and irrational thoughts can be the cause of both physical and mental illness. Therefore, one can only become better by changing the belief system which is seen as the key solution (Abramowitz, p548). Ellis also authored the ABC theory of personality which refers to the concept of an activating or an antecedent event, the behaviour that results from the event and the event’s consequence. Understanding one’s thoughts regarding a certain event is critical since one can change his behavior.

Being an aspiring coach, one can be able to question the clients regarding their belief pertaining to a certain event in order to make them aware of irrational mentalities that may contribute to being involved in unhelpful behaviours. The combination of cognitive theory and behavioural theory in the 1960s by Beck created the bases for CBT as well as the roles it serves in coaching (Abramowitz, p548). 3 levels of consciousness were analyzed by Beck in his process of the development of the CBT problem-solving techniques. In his analysis, he referred to the place where rational decisions are made as full consciousness. He also referred to automatic thoughts as the rapid flow of private cognitions that flow in everyone’s stream of thoughts and are not subject to accuracy assessment in order to determine their relevance or even accuracy. Lastly, he analyzed core belief or schemas and referred to them as the deepest cognition levels and the shadows that emanate from long life experiences. It is essential for a coach to help the client to recognize their distinctive panache of problem perpetuating while using reason and thinking as well as testing of reality in order to have them modified. The clients in a more adaptive, balanced and helpful manner can, therefore, be able to think about their thinking (Abramowitz, p548).

CBT in Practice

CBT theory has by large been involved in the field of coaching. Through this theory, the clients are encouraged to re-evaluate and identify self-defeating thoughts and also engage in more effective ways of thinking which can result in a different form of behaviour. Techniques employed in this theory spring around the guided discovery concept via the client-driven analysis of the situation surrounding them helped by the coach through Socratic questioning. In this area, coaching becomes more issue-focused and tends to examine the client’s developmental needs as well as the specific events. It has been noted that replacing maladaptive thoughts with positive ones through cognitive restructuring is critical (Abramowitz, p548).

LTAD Theory

This theory states that dedicating commitment for a long time in a certain activity is critical to achieving the mastery desired. In order to achieve this, a specific and well-planned regime is critical where one continues practicing, training, involves himself in competition to assess the level of achievement, competition and then recovery (McKeown, and Nick, p4). For optimum development, it is critical to cultivate winning in the long-term rather than short-term projects. Overemphasizing competitions in the initial stages of training brings about problems in the long run. In training, the coach should identify the essential information and characteristic of the trainee and focus on improving those that can make the performance of the trainee better. Also enabling the trainees to specialize when it is still early is better since it gives them something to focus on (McKeown, and Nick, p4).

Positive Psychology Theory

This is a theory that is rooted in humanistic theory and came about due to deeply focusing on mental illnesses and what resulted in people being unwell (Yates and Masten, p521). The psychologists of the era after the World War II discovered that if there was funding, it could be easy to study the people with mental illnesses. Later on, Martin Seligman, the president of American Psychological Association urged his colleagues to make an expansion of the theory to what is right that it led to the establishment of the theory of positive psychology. Seligman was also interested in the inclusion of the science of human happiness and as well as the study of excellence in psychopathology treatment and investigations (Yates and Masten, p521).

The development of this theory has continued since the 1990s with the recognition of the clinical imbalance where a lot of research mostly focuses on mental illness. The major concepts overlooked when only illness in clients is studied refer to the essential elements and strengths that are needed for preventing reoccurrence of the illness. Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, a theorist of positive psychology argues that people are at their epitome of happiness when doing something where they feel a sense of flow either in leisure, work or activities involving maintenance where one interacts with the world at a challenging level and a level that involves employment of skills that are above the usual level (Yates and Masten, p521). At such a level, the person loses the self-awareness and forgets his or her problems that intrudes consciousness in a normal life that diverting one’s energy from what needs to be done

Engaging in activities that provide a sense of flow and happiness in life is a perfect way to avoid the feeling of isolation, anxiety and depression while being in a bed rest. Using leisure time to complete mini-research assignments and taking more work helps in passing time faster and also enhances gaining of more skills (Yates and Masten, p521). The key leisure service providers should, therefore, ensure that the places of leisure are not just used for resting but for improving the people who desire to improve their skills in the different field. Development of several leisure centres is therefore critical in ensuring that people get the time and space to do what they like doing in their leisure time. This should also be done in schools where the students are allowed not only to rest but to involve themselves in other activities rather than keeping their mind idle providing people with open spaces can help them carry out activities like athletics and playing soccer which may be part of their passion. Also, availing areas of leisure that favor those that are mentally or physically handicapped makes them feel that they are appreciated and that they can use these areas to improve their talents and pursue their talent (Yates and Masten, p521).

Contemporary Issues Affecting Coaching Provisions in The UK

Lyle in his sports coaching concept argued that the provision of coaching services is subject to a number of factors. Such factors may include the ongoing education of coaches. Most people have not yet pursued the coaching education thus this leads to a limited number of professional coaches. Also, the ongoing education for coaches does not touch on all the necessary parts required to be a professional coach but rather relies on the experience that one gathers in the field. Experience takes a long time to come by thus being a professional coach takes a long time.

School-based career programs are also one of the factors affecting coaching in the UK. Most of the schools do not provide enough time for the coaches to help the children grow their talents. Inexistence of enough lessons in the curriculum makes the children be uninterested in a number of sports which limits the number of players in the country. Also due to lack of enough training, the interested students might involve themselves in the sports when they are old which limits their time they involve themselves in these activities.

Most of the times, retention of the students who are being trained in school is poor since most of the students tend to engage in different fields rather than sports. Therefore, the training of the coaches is limited since the number of students expected to continue with the sporting activities tend to engage themselves in other careers thus making the coaches lose morale in their work since it is at only very few instances where they administer professional teaching.

The image of the coaches in the society is mostly poor since their roles are never well recognized. This means that they are never given enough chances to change the lives of the students who need to engage themselves in sports later in life. Also, their work is associated with the failure of the players and the clubs which never perform in the sporting activities thus tarnishing the image of every coach.

Styles and Methods of Delivery in Sports Coaching Setting

There are a number of methods through which coaching can be delivered. These styles may include autocratic styles of delivery which involves the player doing exactly what the coach wants him to do and not what the player himself thinks he should be doing, democratic style involves the player in the process of making decisions where what he does is discussed between him and the coach. The last coaching style is lessee fair which allows the group in play to do what they want to do (Andersen, Van and Brewer, p12).

Coaching Styles Based On UK Environment

There are different styles of training that apply to different people and age groups at different times. For long-term athlete development, integration of a number of styles is critical to enhance the growth of the player’s professionalism. The UK environment to be specific advocate for LTAD form of coaching where different styles and modes of coaching are employed at different stages of the trainees’ development (McKeown and Nick, p4). When training children between the age of 6-9 for male and females can work better with the autocratic form of coaching since it involves instilling discipline and learning mandatory moves to inexperienced trainees. This styles can also work well with the learning to train stage since discipline and acquiring specialized movements that will be beneficial in future is essential. This age ranges from 8-12 years where the young ones must acquire the fundamental movements if they aspire to prosper in sports in future (McKeown and Nick, p4).

Autocratic and democratic can be applied in the training to train stage where at times the trainees are offered some freedom while other times they must do what the coach says. The stage ranges from 11-15 years (McKeown and Nick, p4). This stage enables acquisition of basic tactics to enable them to be fit and professionals in their future. After the initial stages, the trainee begins to acquire professionalism and crucial moves. At this stage, democratic form of training can work well. However, the trainees should not be having too much freedom to avoid their training and growth of skills from being affected. The stage ranges from 16-18 years. The ratio of training and competition in this stage should be 50:50 (McKeown and Nick, p4). This stage involves intense activities all year round which calls for the provision of specific forms of training

If providing freedom to the trainees is what can enhance their prosperity, comfort and professionalism, democratic and holistic coaching are necessary. Holistic coaching cuts across the social and the spiritual matters and calls for a personal relationship and respect between the players and the coach. This enhances the interaction between the trainee and the coach thus enhancing better understanding and reasoning (McKeown and Nick, p4).

Practice and Talent Development

When we want to be professionals in our own field, one thing that we should be involved in is the art of practising where we do something multiple times and also in different ways to achieve the mastery we desire. Having a talent is one thing but then growing it is another. One of the ways through which one can grow and manage their talent is through employing the art of practice. Practice is important due to a number of reasons (Ericsson, p685)

Practice helps one to improve what he does. Making a routine in doing something increases the chances of doing it better in future, for example, practising on how to make long shots in netball can enhance one’s ability to do so in future which would then give the opponent a hard time trying to stop such shots. Such a thing can then result to a win (Ericsson, p685).

Practice is also critical in improving self-confidence. For example, making a special move that you have never done again may feel embarrassing since you might fail in the process of doing it after employing all the effort. But practising on the same move provides one with confidence to pull it and do what is supposed to be done. Therefore, the fruits of hard work depend on one’s level of determination. The determination can be employed in practice where one does not feel tired of doing something for a number of times if it will result to achieving the required mastery (Ericsson, p685).

Talent ID System

There arose the need for a system of formal reporting that could lead to the identification of softball players that are talented. The system of talent ID was then developed in the year 2007 with the use of an access database (Pankhurst and Collins, p83). The aim of this system was to help the coaches in the national teams who possess information about potential players that they may be having an eye on to be part of their team in New Zeeland teams. The system helps in building a picture containing what youth players have achieved across all the age groups. The system provided the coaches with the recommendation as well as the primary factors to consider when analyzing the provided material (Pankhurst and Collins, p83).

The information on TID is provided by the coaches, the selectors, association as well as the officers from the regional game development. TID profiles are then made and summarized information is uploaded to the database. This information can then be accessed from the websites as well as the meetings of the tournament managers. The information is availed to the national tournament selectors in order to be able to select individuals to participate in the required games especially from the areas where the tournament is being held (Pankhurst and Collins, p83).

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Development of Coaching Philosophy, Skills for Life and Work

A critical part of leadership is the coaching philosophy. The leadership credibility can be strengthened through initially employing coaching philosophy that clarifies the core coaching values as well as the essential coaching reasons. To develop the coaching philosophy implies that one can identify the coaching purpose the values of coaching as well as choosing of the style of leadership. Therefore, having a purpose, combined with employing leadership styles and values are the elements of coaching philosophy. Coaching philosophy emphasizes the desire to compete, self-confidence, mental toughness, discipline, team unity responsibility and accountability. These values are helpful in general life as well as in doing any form of work (Cushion and Partington, p851).

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The Factors Surrounding the Theories of Coaching. (2018, November 05). GradesFixer. Retrieved December 1, 2023, from
“The Factors Surrounding the Theories of Coaching.” GradesFixer, 05 Nov. 2018,
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