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Chemistry is a vital part of the laboratory in the hospital. The instruments and test that are ran everyday are an important part for discovering what may be wrong with patients. The instruments help diagnoses acute diabetic ketoacidosis. Some of the signs that could help diagnose acute diabetic ketoacidosis prior or in conjunction with the chemistry tests are excessive vomiting, starvation, asthma, hyperventilation, uremia, emphysema, and chronic renal failure. The chemistry bench uses a cardiac panel to identify issues that may lead to a cardiovascular event. By running this test, you could be giving someone a second chance to life by discovering issues in advance.
The human body produces hormones every day. Some of these hormones include aldosterone, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH), and Estradiol. Doctors will order tests for these hormones depending on what the signs and symptoms may be. Tumor markers are also assayed on the chemistry bench. Tumor markers help determine whether treatments are working or not. lipid panel test specific lipid in the blood. This test is very important in regards to measuring the significance of cardiovascular disease happening. All these test are ran often on patients every day to help with the health of patients.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis accounts for 135,000 hospital admissions every year in the United States as a cost of around 2.5 billion U.S dollar per year. In acute diabetic ketoacidosis, you have a lack of insulin which gives a result of increased blood sugar because glucose is not being transported inside the cell by insulin. Insulin is the open door for glucose. Also in diabetic ketoacidosis, there is no inhibition of fatty acid transport in the matrix of mitochondria in which forms an accumulation of fatty acids in the mitochondria forming Beta oxidation. These fatty acids are acetoacetate, acetone and beta hydroxybutyrate. An accumulation of these acids will overwhelm the body causing asthma and hyperventilation. To prevent this from happening it is prevalent to treat sign and symptoms early on. The signs of this happening can be fruity breath from the fatty acids. Beta oxidation is when the long chains of fatty acids are chopped up into two carbon units. The two carbon units are transported into the Krebs cycle forming ketone bodies when they are combine with each other. Ketone bodies lead to acidosis which is specifically called an anion gap. Low insulin levels lead to high glucose which leads to dehydration. This happens because the accumulation of glucose is so high that it exceeds the threshold of the kidneys.
This is called osmotic diuresis which mean that there are too many particles in the urine because the kidneys are unable to filter them out which causes dehydration which causes excessive urination. When the kidneys start to shut down an excess of amino acid and protein metabolism end products, such as urea and creatinine, in the blood that would be normally excreted in the urine. This is called uremia. When glucose is no longer being transported into the cell energy is no longer being able to be produced which puts the body in metabolic starvation mode.
Diabetic ketoacidosis causes a low extracellular pH. Low extracellular pH equals high extracellular H+ concentration, which is pushed into the cell in exchange for positive K+ ions, coming out of the cell, thus extracellular K+ concentration rises, which will paralyze the stomach, thus causing serious stomach distention and vomiting. Emphysema in Acute diabetic ketoacidosis occurs because of acidotic respiration and vomiting. Also, emphysema is caused because of ruptured alveoli with activity from high intrathoracic pressure. kidney damage that lasts longer than 3 months is called chronic renal failure. This occurs often in acute diabetic ketoacidosis because renal failure becomes permanent because of kidney damage.
A Cardiac Panel is a bunch of tests health factors that have been proven to indicate a person’s chance of having a cardiovascular event like a stroke or heart attack. The risks of these events happening include age, family history, weight, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, diet, exercise, physical activity, and diabetes. The test that are on a cardiac panel include a complete blood count (CBC), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), C-reactive protein, Homocysteine Plasma, Lipoprotein, Lipid Panel w/LDL: HDL Ratio-includes cholesterol, LDL: HDL ratio, cholesterol total, LDL calculation, HDL calculation, triglycerides, and VLDL calculation. Complete blood count will help determine specific disorders and the overall health status of the patient. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) will help address status of your kidneys, liver, and electrolyte and acid/base balance as well as of your blood sugar and blood proteins. C-reactive protein is useful in gauging risk of heart disease, cardiovascular disease and other diseases with inflammatory properties.
Lastly Homocysteine determines if you are folate deficient or B12-deficient. Tumor markers are substances normal proteins that are produced by cells. Tumor markers are normally produced from cells that are cancerous. They can also be made from normal cells. When someone has cancer, they will be produced as a higher level than normal. Cancer Antigen 125(CA125) is a tumor marker that presents in larger portion when ovarian cancer is present. CA 125 is normally measured by a blood test. It can also be measured by fluid in the chest or abdominal cavity. These tests are used to measure the antibody that is directed against CA 125.
Cancer Antigen 19 is a tumor marker to observe whether or not treatment is working for Pancreatic cancer, gallbladder cancer, bile duct cancer, and gastric cancer. Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) is a tumor marker measured to help diagnose liver cancer and follow response to treatment; to assess stage, prognosis, and response to treatment of germ cell tumors. Another important tumor marker is Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA). This tumor marker is to keep track of how well treatment is going and whether or not the cancer has come back. CEA tumor marker usually is associated with colorectal cancer. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta-hCG) is associated with Choriocarcinoma and germ cell tumors. Beta-hCG can be tested with either urine or blood. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a tumor marker specific to prostate cancer. The reason to measure for this antigen is to help in diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and look for recurrence.lipid panel test specific lipid in the blood. This test is very important in regards to measuring the significance of cardiovascular disease happening. Testing should be done for adults, every four to six years; for youths, once between the ages of 9 and 11 and again between ages 17 and 21.
A lipid panel includes total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. To calculate total cholesterol, you would add low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein and the multiply it by triglycerides divided by 5. For calculations regarding low-density lipoproteins you would be total cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein multiplied by triglycerides divided by five. To calculate triglycerides, you subtract total cholesterol from LDL and HDL and divide it by five. These calculations are important for producing correct results in the laboratory. When patients are having problems with blood pressure the doctor may order an aldosterone test to help figure out what may be going on. Laboratory technicians with test a small amount of the patients’ blood to measure the amount of aldosterone that is in your body. Aldosterone plays a role in helping keep your blood pressure in a normal range. Aldosterone balances both sodium and potassium in your body. The adrenal gland produces aldosterone. Another important hormone produce in your body is testosterone.
Testosterone is a hormone produced in the male testes. This hormone is produced throughout a man’s life. This hormone helps to establish muscle, chest hair, deeper voice, sex drive, and production of sperm. Woman produce testosterone as well but in smaller amounts. This hormone is produced in a woman’s ovaries. This helps maintain hormone balance. Testosterone travels throughout your body in two forms. Attached to the proteins albumin and sex hormone binding globulin or free not attached to proteins. A testosterone test will measure both free and bound hormone. Follicle stimulating hormone is a hormone tested in either your blood or urine. This hormone is a hormone that helps with production. In women, it helps with egg production and in males it helps with sperm production. Patients who are lacking or have too much of this hormone may have problems with getting pregnant. This hormone is produced by your pituitary gland.
Luteinizing hormone is a hormone measured also in your blood. This hormone also helps in production of a woman’s ovaries and as well as a man’s testes. This test is ordered because of infertility as well as problems with the pituitary gland. Estradiol is the primary hormone in pregnant women. This hormone is important in developing female characteristics and sexual function. Estradiol contributes to most gynecologic problems, including endometriosis and fibroids and even female cancers. These hormones are important to the everyday functions of both male and female bodies. When problems occur, the doctor may order these tests to help diagnose the problem. Chemistry portion of the Core Laboratory test serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids. These tests are running 24 hours a day 7 days a week and it is very important for the technician to be fully informed on all tests and instrument properties.
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