The Philosophy of Utilitarianism: Balancing Ethics and Morality

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About this sample


Words: 771 |

Pages: 2|

4 min read

Published: Sep 7, 2023

Words: 771|Pages: 2|4 min read

Published: Sep 7, 2023

Table of contents

  1. Understanding Utilitarianism
  2. Strengths of Utilitarianism
  3. 1. Clarity and Simplicity
    2. Flexibility
    3. Promotes Social Welfare
  4. Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
  5. 1. Sacrificing Minority Interests
    2. Measuring Happiness
    3. Neglecting Individual Rights
  6. Conclusion

Utilitarianism is a prominent ethical theory that has influenced moral philosophy for centuries. In this essay, we will explore the definition and history of utilitarianism, examining its association with renowned philosophers like Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. We will also delve into the strengths and weaknesses of utilitarianism and how they can be addressed to promote ethical and moral decision-making.

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Understanding Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is a moral and ethical theory that revolves around the idea of maximizing happiness and minimizing suffering for the greatest number of people. It posits that actions should be judged based on their utility, with utility defined as the overall happiness or well-being that results from those actions. This foundational principle serves as a guide for making moral decisions in various aspects of life.

The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back to the 18th century, primarily associated with the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham. Bentham believed in the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" and sought to create a systematic framework for evaluating the morality of actions. His approach was largely quantitative, measuring happiness in terms of pleasure and pain and advocating for a hedonistic calculus to determine the moral value of actions.

Utilitarianism gained further refinement and popularity through the works of John Stuart Mill, another prominent philosopher of the 19th century. Mill expanded on Bentham's ideas, introducing the concept of qualitative differences in pleasures. He argued that not all pleasures are equal and that intellectual and moral pleasures should be valued more highly than mere physical pleasures. Mill's version of utilitarianism, known as qualitative utilitarianism, aimed to address some of the criticisms directed at the theory.

Strengths of Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism offers several strengths that make it an attractive ethical theory for addressing complex moral dilemmas.

1. Clarity and Simplicity

One of the key strengths of utilitarianism is its clarity and simplicity. The principle of maximizing overall happiness provides a straightforward and practical guide for decision-making. It allows individuals to weigh the consequences of their actions and make choices that benefit the greater good.

2. Flexibility

Utilitarianism is a flexible framework that can adapt to various situations and contexts. It does not rely on rigid rules or dogma, enabling individuals to apply it to different ethical dilemmas they encounter in their lives. This adaptability makes it a versatile tool for moral decision-making.

3. Promotes Social Welfare

Utilitarianism places a strong emphasis on the well-being of society as a whole. By prioritizing the happiness of the majority, it aims to create a more equitable and prosperous society. This focus on social welfare aligns with the values of justice and fairness, making it a compelling ethical theory for addressing issues of distributive justice.

Weaknesses of Utilitarianism

While utilitarianism has its merits, it also faces significant criticisms and weaknesses that need to be addressed.

1. Sacrificing Minority Interests

One of the primary criticisms of utilitarianism is that it can lead to the sacrifice of minority interests for the greater good. Since the theory prioritizes the happiness of the majority, it may justify actions that harm or marginalize minority groups. Critics argue that this can be unjust and morally problematic.

2. Measuring Happiness

Quantifying and measuring happiness is a challenging task. Utilitarianism relies on the idea of a hedonistic calculus to determine the moral value of actions, but assigning numerical values to happiness and pain is subjective and prone to error. This subjectivity can lead to ethical dilemmas and disagreements over the consequences of actions.

3. Neglecting Individual Rights

Utilitarianism's focus on the overall happiness of society sometimes neglects the importance of individual rights and liberties. Critics argue that it may justify violations of individual rights if doing so benefits the majority. This conflict between the greater good and individual autonomy raises ethical concerns.


In conclusion, utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory that seeks to maximize overall happiness by evaluating the utility of actions. It has a rich history, with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill being key proponents of the philosophy. Utilitarianism offers clarity, flexibility, and a focus on social welfare as its strengths. However, it also faces criticism for potentially sacrificing minority interests, the difficulty of measuring happiness, and neglecting individual rights.

To address these weaknesses, contemporary utilitarian thinkers have proposed modifications to the theory. Some advocate for incorporating principles of justice to protect minority interests, while others suggest refining the measurement of happiness or considering alternative ethical frameworks in conjunction with utilitarianism.

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Ultimately, the philosophy of utilitarianism offers valuable insights into ethical and moral decision-making, but it is not without its challenges. As society continues to grapple with complex moral dilemmas, the ongoing discussion and evolution of utilitarianism will play a vital role in shaping ethical principles that promote the greater good while respecting individual rights and values.

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Dr. Charlotte Jacobson

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The Philosophy of Utilitarianism: Balancing Ethics and Morality. (2023, September 07). GradesFixer. Retrieved June 23, 2024, from
“The Philosophy of Utilitarianism: Balancing Ethics and Morality.” GradesFixer, 07 Sept. 2023,
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