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The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, and Hebrew. Arabic and Hebrew represent the Afro-Asiatic language family. Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East.
Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Several Modern South Arabian languages such as Mehri and Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman. Another Semitic language such as Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandaeans. There is also a Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language.
Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is primarily spoken in Iran and some border areas in neighbouring countries, the country is one of the region’s largest and most populous. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the family of Indo-European languages. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include Achomi, Daylami, Kurdish dialects, Semmani, Lurish, amongst many others.
The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region’s largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia. Another Turkic language, Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran.
Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel, the other being Arabic. Hebrew is spoken and used by over 80% of Israel’s population, the other 20% using Arabic.
English is commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Kurdistan, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. It is also a main language in some Emirates of the United Arab Emirates.
French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt and Syria. Maltese, a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the Franco-Maltese diaspora in Egypt.
Armenian and Greek speakers are also to be found in the region. Georgian is spoken by the Georgian diaspora. Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late 1990s. Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in Israel; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic. Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995[update] Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.[note 3]
Bengali, Hindi and Urdu is widely spoken by migrant communities in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20–25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50–55% of the population is South Asian), and Qatar, which have large numbers of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Indian immigrants.
The Political-Security Importance
In the Middle East, with regard to social fabric, ethnic and racial diversity, resources and material facilities are of particular importance. Because the distribution of natural resources and facilities was not based on the will and satisfaction of the people of the region.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, the creation of boundaries for newly emerging countries was based on the interests and pride of the colonial powers of Europe that were present in the Middle East without regard to the ethnic, racial and religious issues of the people. Therefore, today, in the Middle East and even North Africa, one can not find a country that is not in a way with one of its neighbors, for the sake of water, oil, land, and so on. The same problem from time to time raises the arms race and in some cases causes conflict and short-term and long-term conflict in the Middle East. Therefore, the Middle East is of political importance for the people of the region as well as for other countries.
Zbigniew Brzezinski, a leading US foreign policy theorist and National Security Advisor Carter, says that the region is like a “wormhole” that has been dragged out and ready to throw a deadly shoot to the globe. From the Horn of Africa to Afghanistan and from Iran to the Middle East this arc. This “drainage” is the center of the superpower’s heavy competition, and its perimentional center may ignite at any moment, and excite the world. 
The Middle East as the world’s focal point of energy throughout the twentieth century, and doubly at the beginning of the new century, has been the point of rising and the emergence of many developments and crises that their effects have often surpassed the regional levels. The Middle East region, especially since the end of the Second World War, has been increasingly attracted by great powers due to the importance of the global economy, and forced them to use various tools to influence and influence the developments in the area. .
In the twentieth century, this region was, on the one hand, a major part of the world’s energy supply, and on the other hand, it was the focus of some crises and tensions, mainly due to the presence of Israel and the dictates of some great powers, especially the United States. For this reason, developments in the Middle East region are tied to global security and international political economy.
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