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The Use of Automation in Industrial Processes

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Industry automation of processes enhances the efficiency of labour and to reduce net cost, at the same time improving the quality of the product. The use of automated processes enhance productivity over a short period of time and it low the cost. The use of machines and robots keep increasing because their able to carry out a series of action. The objective of automating industrial processes is to:

  • Improve production reliability
  • Increase production speed
  • Improve production control
  • Reduce human error
  • Reduce labour cost
  • Increase safety
  • High productivity
  • Increase consistency
  • Improve operational efficiency.

Even though automated processes are expensive to create and implement, the capital investment required is not as great as for automated transfer lines, because work units produced on automated assembly systems are usually smaller, which means that the large mechanical forces and power requirements used for transfer line operations are not necessary. Automated assembly systems tend to be physically smaller than transfer lines, which usually reduces the cost of the system. Automate processes refer to the use of devices to accomplish task that use to be completed manually in the working line.

Basics of automating industrial processes

Our discussion here examines possible configurations for the automated assembly system, how parts are delivered to the workstation, and a brief examination of potential applications

Robots Description

Articulated Robots

  • The general configuration of a human shoulder and arm.
  • It consist of an upright body that swivels about the base using a T joint. This robot has the most degree of freedom, gives the manufacturer more versatility and makes them more appealing.
  • An articulated robot can be used for dozens of different welding, material handling, dispensing and material removal applications.
  • Polar coordinate

  • It is consists of L joint actuated relative to the body, which can rotate about both a vertical axis using T joint and horizontal axis R joint.
  • It is used for handling machine tools, spot welding, diecating, fettling machines, gas welding and arc welding.
  • SCARA (Selectively Compliant Arm for Robotic Assembly)

  • It is consist of vertical shoulder and elbow on the rotational axes
  • Perform inserting task in vertical direction
  • Cartesian Coordinate Robot

  • Has 3 orthogonal joints. to achieve linear motions in 3-dimensional rectangular work space.
  • It usually used for overhead access to load and unload production machines.
  • Delta Robot

  • It consists of 3 arms attached to the base and two rotational joint.
  • It can be used for high-speed movement of small objects, for example product packaging.

For the robots to be able to hold parts it need end effectors which are called Grippers. There are lot of possible grippers that can be used on a specific robot but it depend on what the process is about, each and every robot have its own fucntion. Types of grippers used in industrial robot applications include the following

  • Vacuum Grippers
  • It uses vacuum cups as the gripping device, which is also commonly known as suction cups. This type of grippers will provide good handling if the objects are smooth, flat, and clean. It has only one surface for gripping the object.

  • Simple Mechanical device sis used as an end effector in a robot for grasping the objects with its mechanically operated fingers. In industries, two fingers are enough for holding purposes. Such as hooks and scoop.
  • Magnetized device is used for holding ferrous parts.
  • Mechanical Gripper is used as an end effector in a robot for grasping the objects with its mechanically operated fingers. In industries, two fingers are enough for holding purposes.

We combine specific robots and gripper for them to perform some task. So thois robot can do task which where normally done by human beings. We can automate as many processes as we what by using robots. For example We can take a assembling process where a worker (W1) is required to place a work part on a conveyor belt and it is transported to a station where another worker (W2) assemble the work part and place it on the conveyor which move it to the storage place where a human worker (W3) have to take it off the conveyor and place it on the storage place.

W3W2W1 Conveyor

So instead of using worker (w1) to place a work part we can replace him by an articulated robot with a mechanical gripper as the end effector. Therefore, the articulated robot will place work piece on the conveyor we replace worker (w2) by a CNC machine which will do the assembling the work piece. After the assembly the work piece will be moved by the conveyor belt and worker (W3) replaced by an articulated robot. Then the process is automated though it will need human attendance after some period.


Automating a process make a company generate lot of profit and increasing the efficiency of the the process. Before we can automate we analyse the process so that we can know where to improve. Then when automation we divide our analysis into a consideration of the times, costs and benefits of automated workstations, and the times, costs and benefits of manual workstations, before combining the two to achieve the result.

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