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The Wastewater Treatment

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The Wastewater Treatment essay
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The dirty water comes from homes,drainage of industrial waste and many other sourses is what we call sewage water or waste water. Due to ever increasing population the demand for clean water is constantly increasing, so purification and production of potable water is one of the alternatives to deal with this problem of water crisis. Recycling of waste water or rain water harvesting are some of the means by which water can be used for industrial and agricultural purposes.

Wastewater are storehouse of many unused minerals, pathogens which cannot be used as such for kitchen gardens, aquaculture ponds or agricultural fields. Thus wastewater have to be purified with cost effective methods, so that water can be used for agricultural purposes. An effective method of waste water treatment is the use of agricultural waste such coconut coir, rice bran waste, neem bark, waste bamboo. Till date several methods have been used for the treatment of waste water.

The purification of waste water from various industrial processes is a world wide problem of increasing importance due to the restricted amounts of water suitable for direct use. Maintaing the drinking water quality is essential to public health. Various types of dyes, heavy metal, BOD, COD are of important classes. Removal of dye from effluents of chemical industries such as plastics, dyestuffs, textile, pulp and paper has remained a problem of increasing concern to the environmentalists. The presence of these dyes even at a very low concentration is highly observable and undesirable. Therefore dye removal has been a very important but challenging area of wastewater treatment. The present study is undertaken to investigate the efficiency of raw coconut coirdust (without physical/chemical modification or activation) as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Similarly, in the era of industrialization and urbanization, there is a huge increase in the use of metals in the industries. The effluents from these industries contains heavy metals in their effluents which leads to the deterioration of the water quality. Neem bark are used for the removal of heavy metal such as Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Zn(II).In addition rice bran is also used for decreasing the sludge volume. Both biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand decreases relative to that before the addition of rice bran.

The waste water treatment is done in 4 steps:

Prelimnary treatment

Primary treatment

Secondary treatment

Tertiary treatment

Prelimnary treatment:

Waste water contains suspended solids such as rags, wood, metal, plastic,etc. These suspended impurities have to be removed as they interfere with treatment process.

Primary treatment:

Consist of mainly the sedimentation process to remove suspended organic solids. ?hemicals are sometimes added in primary clarifier for the removal of colloidal solids.

Secondary or biological treatment:

Here 2 types of process takes place one is activated sludge process and another is filtration.With the use of rice bran during actvated sludge process for the removal of organic matter and further removing 75-95% of BOD. In the filtration tank ,waste water is passed over a bed of rocks or soil profile,it removes finely divided suspended matter and also removes 80-95% of BOD.

Tertiary treatment:

This is the most important one in which we use agricultural waste foe the removal of pesticides, dyes, heavy metals. For this purpose we use coconut coir as a bioabsorbant for the removal of excess dye present in water. Neem bark is used for the remol ov heavy metal from waste water.Bamboo chips as a bioabsorbant for the removal of pesticides.

Output of the idea and application:

Beside the classical waste water treatment techniques,adsoption is the most promising separation and purification method using different agricultural waste. There are various potential agricultural waste adsorbents for the removal of toxic heavy metals, dyes and various pesticides. Waste water which cannot be used due to the presence of pathogens and trace elements after get treated with agricultural waste having various properties can now be used as such for kitchen garden,aquaculture pond or agricultural fields. Thus waste water is purified in a cost effective method.

Commercial viability:

The waste products from the agricultural field can be easily used in a ecofriendly way the agricultural waste like rice bran,waste bamboo,neem bark, coconut coir can easily be collected and can be used commercially for the treatment of waste water. This process of using agricultural waste is a cost effective process.

Competitive advantage over existing technologies:

We can clean 200L/2hour by using 1 kg of each adsorbant(3 types) cost maximum 50 rupees. Where as by using motor about 1500/-, by using machine about 6000/- and in one time investement programme about 7500/-is used. In comparission all other exsisting techniques it is the most effective, with low cost treatment process.

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