close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Titration: a Commonly Used Laboratory Technique

downloadDownload printPrint

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay. We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

blank-ico
Download PDF

A titration is a commonly used laboratory technique where a solution of a known concentration (the titrant) is used to determine the concentration of another solution (analyte). We slowly add the known solution with a buret to the unknown solution until it reaches neutralization, indicating the equivalence point or the point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have been mixed. Titrations are most commonly used when one needs to find the pH level of an unknown solution. In order to perform a titration, certain glassware must be utilized. We need to use volumetric glassware such as a volumetric flask, pipette, and burette and non-volumetric glassware such as a glass funnel, beaker, and conical flask.

Additionally, one must use an analytical balance to obtain accurate weighing of samples and precipitates. As mentioned before, the titrant (known solution) is added to the analyte (unknown solution) until the stoichiometric volume of the titrant reaches the equivalence point, or chemically equivalent quantities of bases and acids have been mixed. There are two methods that are commonly used to determine this equivalence point. One method is monitoring the pH during the titration with a pH electrode, a glass, ion-selective electrode that is sensitive to hydrogen ions, and the equivalence point identified at the point of rapid pH change. Another way to determine equivalence point is with an indicator which in this case is phenophtalein. The phenophtalein, the indicator in this specific experiment, will change color in response to chemical change implying that the endpoint has been reached. Phenolphthalein has a pH of 8.3-10, in which it will appear pink in basic solution and clear in acidic solutions. In order to carry out a successful titration, the concentration of the standard solution must be known very accurately. In this experiment, one needs to standardize the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It is possible to take the solid NaOH to prepare a solution but the mass may not be accurate due to sodium hydroxide’s hygroscopic characteristic, meaning it attracts water.

Therefore, the mass of the sodium hydroxide will include the mass of water along with CO2 from the air. Therefore, to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide it needed to be titrated against a primary standard, which is potassium hydrogen phthalate in this experiment. A primary standard is a pure compound that will not decompose in room temperature and resist the absorption of water. KHP is dried before use and the exact mass of KHP can be determined using the analytic balance. Then, KHP is dissolved in water and then titrated with NaOH, creating the standard solution. This is necessary because standard solutions allow one to determine the concentration of other substances and perform the titration with accuracy. After making this standard solution of NaOH, the concentration of an unknown acid solution, the analyte, can be determined. Next, we determine the concentration of an aqueous solution of HCL by slowly titrating it with a solution of NaOH of known concentration until a faint pink color is reached and has persisted for about thirty seconds. The molarity of HCL is calculated based on the molarity and volume of the NaOH solution and volume of HCL solution.

By measuring the volume of NaOH added to HCL until it reaches neutralization and recording the concentration of NaOH in the titration, the number of moles of NaOH added to the flask can be calculated. At the end point, this is also the number of moles of HCL. The number of moles coupled with the volume of HCL solution can be used to calculate the molarity of HCL solution. Therefore, it is very important to record the volume of NaOH added to the HCl and the pH changes. Next, we determine the concentration of an aqueous solution of HCL by slowly titrating it with a solution of NaOH of known concentration until a faint pink color is reached and has persisted for about thirty seconds. The molarity of HCL is calculated based on the molarity and volume of the NaOH solution and volume of HCL solution. By measuring the volume of NaOH added to HCL until it reaches neutralization and recording the concentration of NaOH, the number of moles of NaOH added to the flask can be calculated. At the end point, this is also the number of moles of HCL. The number of moles coupled with the volume of HCL solution can be used to calculate the molarity of HCL solution.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Titration: a commonly used laboratory technique. (2019, February 27). GradesFixer. Retrieved January 26, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/titration-a-commonly-used-laboratory-technique/
“Titration: a commonly used laboratory technique.” GradesFixer, 27 Feb. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/titration-a-commonly-used-laboratory-technique/
Titration: a commonly used laboratory technique. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/titration-a-commonly-used-laboratory-technique/> [Accessed 26 Jan. 2022].
Titration: a commonly used laboratory technique [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Feb 27 [cited 2022 Jan 26]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/titration-a-commonly-used-laboratory-technique/
copy to clipboard
close

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.

    close

    Attention! This essay is not unique. You can get a 100% Plagiarism-FREE one in 30 sec

    Receive a 100% plagiarism-free essay on your email just for $4.99
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample
    close

    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

    close

    Thanks!

    Please check your inbox.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now
    boy

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer
    exit-popup-close

    Haven't found the right essay?

    Get an expert to write you the one you need!

    exit-popup-print

    Professional writers and researchers

    exit-popup-quotes

    Sources and citation are provided

    exit-popup-clock

    3 hour delivery

    exit-popup-persone