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Training: all you need to know

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Training is the process for providing required skills to the employee for doing the job effectively, skilfully and qualitatively. Training of employees is not continuous, but it is periodical and given in specified time. Generally training will be given by an expert or professional in related field or job. Training is required at every stage of work and for every person at work. To keep oneself updated with the fast changing technologies, concepts, values and environment, training plays a vital role. Training programmes are also necessary in any organisation for improving the quality of work of the employees at all levels. It is also required when a person is moved from one assignment to another of a different nature. Taking into account this context, this unit aims at providing insight into the concept, need and methods of training, also areas of evaluation of training, retraining and dimensions of organisational learning.

Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees. Training is investment in getting more and better quality work from your talent. Thus, training is a process that tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job or to mould him to be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the employee has & what the job demands.

Since training involves time, effort & money by an organization, so an organization should to be very careful while designing a training program. The objectives & need for training should be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs & objectives established. Once this is done accurately, an organization should take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization. Recurrent training is training that is scheduled at periodic intervals in order to keep employee skill abilities at a maximum level. Recurrent training often occurs in certain industries, like health care and aviation where human safety is involved. Recurrent training can be outsourced, provided by a visiting instructor, or performed by instructors from a corporate training department.

Definition of training: Training is that process by which the efficiency of the employees increases and develops. It is a specialized knowledge which is required to perform a specific job. It has been defined by different scholars of management. Some important definitions of training are as under: In the words of Dale S. Beach, “Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and Improve skill for a definite purpose.” In the words of Michael J. Jucius, “Training is a process by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.” According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.” In the words of Dale Yoder, “Training is the process by which manpower is filled for the particular job it has to perform.”

In simple words, to provide ability to the employee to perform a specific job is called training. Knowledge and skill to accomplish a specific job in a specific way is called training. At all levels of organisation training and development programmes are needed in order to make qualitative improvement in the work of the employees. Employee Training is bifurcated into on-the-job training and off-the-job training methods having different sub-methods of training given for different purposes to different types of employees holding or going to hold different jobs. In India At NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation), is providing one year training program to its newly joined employees, off-the-job training by way of classroom method for period of six months and on-the-job training by way of job rotation method for remaining six months. Boston Consulting Group’s (BCG) India, is providing on-the-job training by live case studies for its newly joined employees followed by induction programme.

Meaning of training: “Training is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.”

Need for training: Training is essential because technology is developing continuously and at a fast rate. Systems and practices get outdated soon due to new discoveries in technology, including technical, managerial and behavioural aspects. Organisations that do not develop mechanisms to catch up with and use the growing technology soon become stale. However, developing individuals in the organisation can contribute to its effectiveness of the organisation.

There are some other reasons also for which this training becomes necessary. Explained below are various factors, giving rise to the need for training.

  1. Employment of inexperienced and new labour requires detailed instructions for effective performance on the job.
  2. People have not to work, but work effectively with the minimum of supervision, minimum of cost, waste and spoilage, and to produce quality goods and services.
  3. Increasing use of fast changing techniques in production and other operations requires training into newer methods for the operatives.
  4. Old employees need refresher training to enable them to keep abreast of changing techniques and the use of sophisticated tools and equipment.
  5. Training is necessary when a person has to move from one job to another because of transfer, promotion or demotion.

Benefits of training:

  1. As the business world is continuously changing and dynamic, organizations will need to provide to their employee training throughout their careers. If they do not provide continuous training they will find it difficult to stay ahead of the competition.
  2. The other benefit of training is that it will keep employees motivated. New skills and knowledge can help to reduce or minimize boredom. It also demonstrates to the employee that they are valuable enough for the employer to invest in them and their development.
  3. Employee Training can be used to create positive attitudes through clarifying the behaviours and attitudes that are expected from the employee by employer.
  4. Employee Training can be cost effective, as it is cheaper to train existing employees compared to recruitment of new employee with the skills you need.
  5. Training can save the organization money and time if the training helps the employee to become more efficient.

Main Objectives of Training Programme are as follows:

  1. To impart to new entrants basic knowledge and skills
  2. To assist the employees to function more effectively in their present position by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing in them the skills required in their fields,
  3. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them as a part of their career progression to occupy more responsible positions.
  4. To broaden the minds of the senior managers by providing them opportunities for interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correct the narrow outlook that may arise from over specialization.
  5. To impart customer education.

Importance of Training: Training is crucial for organizational development and success. It is fruitful to both employers and employees of an organization. An employee will become more efficient and productive if he is trained well. Training is given on four basic grounds:

  • New candidates who join an organization are given training. This training familiarize them with the organizational mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions.
  • The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their knowledge.
  • If any updations and amendments take place in technology, training is given to cope up with those changes. For instance, purchasing a new equipment, changes in technique of production, computer implantment. The employees are trained about use of new equipments and work methods.
  • When promotion and career growth becomes important. Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the responsibilities of the higher level job.

Types of training: There are a number of different types of training we can use to engage an employee. These types are usually used in all steps in a training process. The training utilized depends on the amount of resources available for training, the type of company, and the priority the company places on training. No one type would be enough for the jobs we do. Most HR managers use a variety of these types of training to develop a holistic employee.

  1. Technical or Technology
  2. Training Depending on the type of job, technical training will be required. Technical training is a type of training meant to teach the new employee the technological aspects of the job. In a retail environment, technical training might include teaching someone how to use the computer system to ring up customers. In a sales position, it might include showing someone how to use the customer relationship management (CRM) system to find new prospects.

  3. Quality Training
  4. In a production-focused business, quality training is extremely important. Quality training refers to familiarizing employees with the means of preventing, detecting, and eliminating non-quality items, usually in an organization that produces a product.

  5. Skills Training
  6. Skills training, the third type of training, includes proficiencies needed to actually perform the job. For example, an administrative assistant might be trained in how to answer the phone, while a salesperson at Best Buy might be trained in assessment of customer needs and on how to offer the customer information to make a buying decision.

  7. Soft Skills Training
  8. Soft skills refer to personality traits, social graces, communication, and personal habits that are used to characterize relationships with other people. Soft skills might include how to answer the phone or how to be friendly and welcoming to customers. It could include sexual harassment training and ethics training.

  9. Professional Training and Legal Training
  10. In some jobs, professional training must be done on an ongoing basis. Professional training is a type of training required to be up to date in one’s own professional field. For example, tax laws change often, and as a result, an accountant for H&R Block must receive yearly professional training on new tax codes. Lawyers need professional training as laws change.

  11. Safety Training
  12. Safety training is a type of training that occurs to ensure employees are protected from injuries caused by work-related accidents. Safety training can also include the following: Eye safety, First aid, Food service safety, Hearing protection etc.

  13. Team Training
  14. Team training as a process that empowers teams to improve decision making, problem solving, and team-development skills to achieve business results. Some reasons for team training include the following: Improving communication, Making the workplace more enjoyable, Motivating a team, Getting to know each other, Getting everyone “onto the same page,” including goal setting.

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