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Different types of yeasts like Active-dry yeast,fresh yeast and instant yeast are used during fermentation.Yeasts typically are inactivated at 40°F (4.44℃) and die at 130°F (54.44℃).Yeasts are used to add flavour of the breads after the yeast have exhausted most of their oxygen supply.If the dough rise too quickly, a large concentration of carbon dioxide gas but low concentration of alcohol which are the by -products of fermentation will be produced. Salt is also used to aid the improvement of taste and the stabilization of the whole fermentation.
This is the important step in forming gluten network.A higher temperature will speed up rising, but the temperature of the dough cannot be too high.Gluten is less temperature sensitive than yeast and if the dough is too warm,the yeast will cause the dough to rise faster than the speed the gluten structure can be formed.This will create bubbles and cause the internal structure of the bread to over-inflate and pop like balloons. This will disrupt the shapes of breads, making breads flatter than what it should be.After fermentation, the dough is folded after 30 minutes into first rising.The dough will then be refolded the second time after 30 minutes has lapsed from the first folding. This is one of the crucial steps leading up to the proofing of breads.This further develops gluten structure by allowing the dough to hold water and air more effectively. This also ensures that the yeast and and those sugars get remixed properly, ensuring maximum fermentation. This is a way to regulate the temperature throughout the dough. This ensures all parts of the dough have the same temperatures.
Folding is done by pulling the side farthest from you in an upward motion towards you and fold dough in half.Give the bowl a quarter turn, then repeat the same steps again.Give the bowl a half turn, then repeat the same steps again.Lastly, pull the unfolded side of the dough up from the bottom and pull it up to form a rectangle.Also, during the second folding, the dough should not be pushed too hard to prevent degassing and disrupting all the actions of the yeast.At the end of proofing and folding, the dough should feel like a waterbed and pillowy , with some spring but also at the same time, your finger should be leave a slight imprint.
During dough division,flour the top of the dough and scrape the sides of the dough with your dough spatula to remove it from the bowl. Turn the bowl containing the dough upside down and one giant blob of flour should drop out from the bowl.Next, flour your hands, bench knife and tabletop. With your bench scraper, cut the dough into half then separate the two halves from each other with the bench knife.To preshape dough, turn the bottom part of the dough over with knife and make that layer the top of the bread would be. Create some folds that is similar to the folds done during first rising and create some tension. Allow the pre-shaped dough to rest on the bench for a while depending on the types of breads that is going to be baked.
At the end, put the dough into a proofing basket or container of the right size and cover both the dough and the basket with a towel.Turn up the underside over so that seam side is now facing up.Fold the dough in the same pattern as how the dough is being folded during and preshaping. To keep dough from sticking to the benchtop, flour the dough and the bench surface slightly. Use flour to keep the dough from sticking to the benchtop.After the folding of the dough is completed, cup your hands together and pull the dough towards you to generate tension
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