This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Delving into The History of War of 1812

downloadDownload printPrint

The War of 1812 (June 1812 – February 1815) was a conflict fought between the United States and its allies, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its dependent colonies in North America and Native American allies.  Why the 1812 war broke out? How the conflict started? The “War of 1812′ essay has a purpose to dive into its history, find facts, and finally understand why the war started.

The conflict began when the United States declared war in June 1812, and ended in a restoration of the pre-war status quo when a peace treaty agreed to earlier was ratified by the United States in February 1815. Its consequences include establishment of a separate Canadian state, an end of hopes for an independent Native American confederation in the North West and paving the way for the western expansion of the US.

The controversies that led to war centered around the economic and trade disputes between America, Britain and France that resulted during the Napoleonic Wars, and therefore historical accounts on the causes, battles and outcome of this war can sometimes vary. A primary cause of the war was the Royal Navy stopping American ships on the open sea and seizing men they claimed to be either British-born or deserters from British vessels, even if they claimed to be American citizens. By some estimates, from 1793 and 1812 over 15,000 Americans were forced into British service in this way. In other accounts the British were concerned with keeping alliances with the American Indians alive while keeping their hold on Canada strong.

Given the wide spread British invasions, burning of American cities, including the capitol building, the blockade and the continued confiscation of American ships and cargo, Americans believe they soundly defeated a British attack on their sovereignty, Canadians that they repulsed ‘the massed might of the United States’, while the British consider it as a minor theater in the wider Napoleonic Wars.

As the abduction of U.S. citizens continued, American sentiment toward Britain grew increasingly hostile, exacerbated by incidents such as the 1807 Chesapeake–Leopard affair. Meanwhile, the British were outraged by the 1811 Little Belt affair. Britain supplied arms to Native Americans, who raided European-American settlers on the American frontier, hindering the expansion of the United States and provoking resentment. President James Madison signed into law the declaration of war after heavy pressure from the pro-war members in the United States Congress who had approved all six resolutions to prepare for war. Federalist opposition to the War of 1812 in the United States had an effect, especially in New England, where it was referred to as ‘Mr. Madison’s War’.

With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a national-level siege strategy, focusing on blockading ports and containing the US at its borders. Offensive operations were initially limited to the border and the western frontier, with help from its Native American allies. American military defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize the British colony of Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade British Lower Canada and capture Montreal also failed. In 1813, the United States won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake and defeating the Native American Tecumseh’s Confederacy at the Battle of the Thames, thereby defeating Britain’s most important Native American ally, a primary war goal. The Americans made a final attempt to invade the Canadas, but the Battle of Lundy’s Lane during the summer of 1814 was fought to a draw.

At sea, the powerful Royal Navy cut off trade and allowed the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, the British burned Washington (including the White House and the Capitol), but the Americans later repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions from the Canadas into the northern and mid-Atlantic states. In early 1815, after a peace treaty was signed, but before this news had reached the Americas, United States forces decisively defeated the attacking British Army near New Orleans, Louisiana, with an estimated casualty count of 2,000 to 60. This was viewed as restoring national honor, and catapulted American commanding General Andrew Jackson to national celebrity, culminating in his victory in the 1828 United States presidential election. In the related Creek War, General Jackson besieged the city of Pensacola – a Spanish Territory, West Florida, where a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. Spain eventually ceded control of Florida to the United States in 1819.

Mounting opposition to the economic cost of the war meant British merchants lobbied for the resumption of trade with the United States. The abdication of Napoleon ended the British war with France and thus the need for impressment, removing a primary cause of the war. The British then increased the strength of their blockade of the United States coast, which had a crippling effect on the American economy. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, and the Treaty of Ghent was signed on 24 December 1814. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the United States Senate on 17 February 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes, except for some islands in Passamaquoddy Bay, an issue that was resolved after the war.

In conclusion the War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and Great Britain between 1812 and 1815. The war was the result of a number of factors, including trade disputes, American expansionism, and the desire to assert national pride and sovereignty. Its consequences had started changes that shaped the current state of America and what it has nowadays.

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

Get custom essay

121 writers online


Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Delving Into the History of War of 1812. (2023, February 11). GradesFixer. Retrieved March 26, 2023, from
“Delving Into the History of War of 1812.” GradesFixer, 11 Feb. 2023,
Delving Into the History of War of 1812. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 26 Mar. 2023].
Delving Into the History of War of 1812 [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2023 Feb 11 [cited 2023 Mar 26]. Available from:
copy to clipboard

Where do you want us to send this sample?

    By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.


    Be careful. This essay is not unique

    This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

    Download this Sample

    Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts


    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.



    Please check your inbox.

    We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!


    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Don't use plagiarized sources. Get your custom essay. Get custom paper

    We can help you get a better grade and deliver your task on time!

    • Instructions Followed To The Letter
    • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
    • Unique And Plagiarism Free
    Order your paper now