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There is a suggestion of the presence of humans in Britain from about 800,000 to 1 million years ago. However, Britain truly emerged into the light of history only in the 5th century AD after the Saxon settlements.
Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 or 54 BCE, and brought the island into close contact with the Roman world. In the first 20 years of occupation some progress had been made in spreading Roman civilization. Britain was an imperial province. In the early 3rd century Britain was divided into two provinces: Britannia Superior had its capital at London and Britannia Inferior, with its capital at York. The 4th century was a period of great prosperity in towns and countryside.
The end of Roman rule in Britain facilitated the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, that established several kingdoms that became the primary powers in present-day England and Scotland.
In 1066, a Norman expedition invaded and conquered England. The Norman dynasty established by William the Conqueror ruled England for over half a century before of the Anarchy period (1135–1154).
Following the Anarchy, England was affected by the rule of the House of Plantagenet. During this period, Magna Carta was signed.
At that time, there was a succession crisis in France that led to the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). The war was a series of conflicts involving the peoples of both English and French nations. In the late 14th century the demographic catastrophe of the Black Death and the agricultural depression affected the kingdom.
The 15th century was a period dominated by a factious nobility, when constructive achievements were few. Right after the Hundred Years' Wars, England became embroiled in its own succession wars. The Wars of the Roses pitted the House of York and the House of Lancaster against one another. Henry Tudor ended the War of the Roses and established the Tudor dynasty in 1485.
The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales. This period includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The House of Tudor produced five monarchs who ruled during this reign. Under the Tudors England became a colonial power.
The Stuart period of British history lasted from 1603 to 1714. The period ended with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of King George I. The Stuart period witnessed intense religious and political conflicts. It shifted power from the monarchy to parliament. During this period discoveries and innovations transformed science, architecture and everyday life.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to 1837. When Queen Anne died in 1714 with no surviving children, the German Hanoverians were brought in to succeed her. The Georgian period made Britain as an international power at the centre of an expanding empire. And accelerating change made it the world’s first industrialised nation.
Queen Victoria came to the throne when she was just 18 years old and ruled Britain for over 60 years. During this era the country acquired unprecedented power and wealth. Political stability, and revolutionary developments in transport and communication was the reasons of Britain’s extention across the globe. Many of the intellectual and cultural achievements of this period are still used by people.
In the 20th century the world saw two world wars. Which catalysed enormous social change across the country, including striking enhancements in health and education. The outcome of two wars debilitated the international standing of Britain, which led to a gradual process of decolonisation. The twentieth century brought important social and cultural changes.
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