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2 pages /
2 pages /
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is a seasonal tropical fruit planted in Southeast Asia. It is one of the region's most costly fruits. Durian trees required rich, deep, well-drained sandy clay or clay loam (deep alluvial or loamy soil), that high in organic matter and range of pH between 6-7 to grow. Heavy clay soils, as they do not drain well, are not tolerant of good durian tree growth and health. When potted in media that is light and sandy rather than high in clay material, seedlings generate more vigorous growth. The land is prepared for planting by first clearing and removing stumps, followed by plowing and harrowing two times. If it is too acidic for the soil, by adding agricultural lime, it can be fixed. But staggered planting will dispense with plowing and harrowing, and only the immediate peripheries of hills are cultivated. A durian tree’s root system is also sensitive to standing water, and it is important to have drainage, which in such sloping situations it can take care of the roots.
Durian plants can be propagated by generative and vegetative methods. One of the superior properties of durian generative propagation is by seedling. First step is using completely grown seeds from the recommended varieties of mature/ripe durian fruits. The seeds were soaked with fungicides or 1% clorox solution before planting, and then washed. The purpose of immersion is to avoid fungal attacks. Next, the seeds are ready for planting. Seeds planting can be carried out in a polybag with size 20 cm x 25 cm. Mix manure and soil to the polybag with a ratio of 1: 1. a polybag planted by one seed in a slanted position and not too deep. Within 3-5 days after planting, a successful seed can germinate, leaving seedlings to grow until their seed pieces are loose. When the seed cotyledon loose, do fertilization using NPK (15:15:15) with dosage 2 gram/litre of water by using a sprinkler. For vegetative propagation, grafting .First, make a multiple stem of durian seedlings with approach models done by cutting the shoots from the additional stem (rootstock), one cotyledon was cut off 15 cm in height, then at the two opposite sides both sides of the tip of the stem were cut to create a wedge with two symmetrical parts. For each of the rootstocks with a blade from the bottom up to form a gap, the stem of scion was cut off. Part of wedge under the additional rootstock was inserted into the slit on scion. All sections of the rootstock and scion were aligned and fit together, such that the sections of the two rootstock plants and two sections of scion plant were close together. A 1 cm wide plastic sheet was used to bundle both rootstocks and scion together, which was fixed in place with grafting plastic.
To growth and developed durian trees depend on the condition of the planting medium. Create a planting hole size 80x 80 x 70 cm or 70x 70 x 60 cm, or adapted to soil types and conditions, and separate from the subsoil the topsoil (20 cm deep), or adapted to soil types and conditions, and separate from the subsoil the topsoil (20 cm deep).The distance between holes at least 8 x 8 m . Leave the planting hole for 2-3 weeks so as the ground poison gas expands by the sun and gone by wind. After that mixing with organic fertilizer or compost as much as 10-15 kg/hole. Put durian seedling into the planting hole with upright position, then cover it with soil about 5 cm above the base of durian seedling stem. Seedling tied to sticks/bamboo so that plant can grow upright. Then flush durians seedling after planted to fulfill water needs. In order to prevent exposure to direct sunlight and heavy rainfall, mad shade after 3-5 months. Soil around the plant also should be closed by grass to stable soil moisturizer.
Provide temporary shade to the newly planted durian seedlings for a period of two weeks to a few months to allow the plants to recover from transplanting shock and shade it from intense sunlight. Also weeding aims to eradicate weeds and unwanted plants that grow around the planted seedlings (1 m from the stem of the tree) that will interfere with the growth of plants. The aim of fertilization is to provide adequate nutrient requirements that the soil cannot provide, to replace lost nutrients after harvesting, and to improve and maintain the biological, physical, and soil chemical fertility status. For the plant age 1 year, it should be given NPK with dosage of 40/80 g/tree/years. Then dosage 150-300 gr/tree/year for 2 years old plant. Then 400/600 gr/tree/year for the 3- years old plant. Pruning objective to obtain optimal growth and production. After that, give organic fertilizer once a year by the end of the rainy season with dosage about 15-20 kg/tree. In particular, the concept of pruning is to remove branches or twigs that are not helpful, encourage the emergence of vegetative buds on branches that bear fruit earlier, and regulate excessive plant growth and promote the continuity of development. At the beginning of planting, efforts must be made to protect the plants in order to achieve the optimum durian yield. The attempts are carried out by pest control (plant destructive organisms, such as pests, pathogens and weeds). The efficacy of pest control can be accomplished by the integrated approach of one or more unified control techniques.
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