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In 1900 school counseling increases its prospects. The history of school counseling has existed for hundreds of years. In 1907 Jesse B Davis is the first person who implemented a schematized guidance program in public schools.
According to the West Virginia Department of education, counseling was created in response to the industrial revolution when regular teachers were played a dual role and they got extra pay for their hard work in counseling the students to achieve their abilities and skills.
The father of guidance, Frank persons, founded Boston’s Vocational Bureau, it is a prominent Step in the institutionalization of vocational guidance. Frank worked with young people who have faced problems in the path of making their career decisions. He mentioned three factors 1. Knowledge of self. 2. knowledge of work and 3. Matching of the two
First counseling association was started in 1913, National vocational guidance association. The main aim of this association is to publish counseling literature and making professionals unite. The Smith Hughes act provided funds for public schools to support vocational education. At the time of World War-I, the US army used many psychological instruments to check soldiers and it became the most popular movement called Psychometrics.
Between 1920-1930 the school counseling and guidance developed gradually because of the rise of education progress in schools. In mid-1920’s the first certification of counselors took place in New York and Boston. In 1937 National association for college admission counseling was founded. This association mainly highlighted personal, social and moral development. Many schools against this movement as anti-educational. This works with the economic hardship of the great depression then it led to incline in school counseling and guidance. The universities in Minnesota did modifications on parson’s theories in 1930 by E.G Williamson and developed a modified first theory of counseling. Used this theory to work with students and unemployed, used to evaluate the influencing skills of the counselors. 1932 Edmund Brewer publishes education as a guide was published by Edmund Brewer which said that every teacher is a counselor and guidance be incorporated into school curriculum.
US government used counselors in World War II. US government needed counselors and psychologists to help in the selection of specialists for the military and employers in the industry. American personnel and guidance association was founded in 1952. This organization brings all groups together in guidance and counseling.
In 1960 school counseling started to turn to be potential of the individual affected by social experimentation and it gave challenges to institutions. so many new subjects were introduced such as decision making and problem-solving methods, drug abuse education, career exploration and information related to self-development.
The great federal funding in the united states for counselor education program was also started in 1960. School counseling gradually started to convert from career development to deal with student personal and social issues. Middle of 1917’s psychologists had become more obstructive and it caused American personnel and guidance association to move towards state licensure for counselors. Virginia became the first state to pass a licensure law in 1976 the enormous growth of counseling outside of educational institutions began in the 1970’s. Narm Gushers’ began to work to shift from school counseling is alone professionals to a more systemic goal of having a comprehensive developmental program for all students k-12.
In between 1980 and 1990 the school counseling didn’t make much impact on the educational community. In response, consulted widely with school counselors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels and created the ASCA national standards for school counseling and they proposed three care rules. They are academic, career, personal/social.
National Center for transforming school counseling:
In 2003 the national center for transforming school counseling (NTSC) at the education trust was founded. Its main concentration on 1) changing the practices of k-12 school counselors to learn prevention and intervention skills. 2) changing how school counseling was thought at the graduate level
From the 1990’s to present:
Sometimes vocational teachers played the role of a counselor no more opportunities for a counselor for some time. Serve as suitable substitutes. School counselors have encouraged a variety of psychological aspects and behaviors of their students. Counselors have also participated in many activities, personal growth individuals, and social growth, student planning, career, character building, study skills, social skills, crisis intervention, prevention programs for implementations. when we compare between 1990’s to Present multiculturalism and diversity between key issued in counseling played a prominent role. As the part of their school counseling program counselors must be comfortable with leadership and advocacy when needed to qualify for a school counselor a master’s degree is the minimum requirement.
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