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Malaysian ornamental fish industry was expected to grow 20. 4% in 2011 by Malaysian Fisheries Department (Borneo Post Online, 2010). Fisheries sector on 2012, comprised of food fish and non-food fish contributed RM11,440 million to the economy (Yusoff & Aishah, 2015). The food fish sector produced 1,780,168 tonnes with a value of RM10,598 million alone, while the non-food fish sector like seaweeds, ornamental fish and aquatic plants contributed RM843 million. Besides, the production of ornamental fish in 2012 itself was 376,679,177 pieces and valued at RM550. 41 million.
According to Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in 2006, the global market size for ornamental fish and aquatic plants was estimated at RM46. 5 billion US$15 billion and is expected to grow between 10 to 15 per cent annually. Aquariums fish mostly filled with vibrant coloured fish and other aquatic creatures which are appealing to watch. For aquarium hobbies, ornamental fish are mesmerized to them, because they are generally characterized with their colours and colour patterns. Besides, there are called the “living jewels” due to their diversity of species, great variety of colour, shape, swimming pattern and soft behaviour. All these factors determine their value in the market.
Binders are the ingredient used to improve feed manufacture and to stabilize diets in water (Marina Paolucci et al. , 2012). Their role is to determine variable level of firmness whether is acceptable to specific feeding behaviour. From some recent experiments, binders are included in practical diets for fish to generate firmer feces when emitted into water to reduce pollution (Brinker, 2007). Inclusion of a binder is a necessity to ensure water stable feed. Many substances have been selected for their binding properties. Mostly natural binders have been employed to manufacture hard pellets with the purpose of increasing water stability with resulting decrease in nutrient loss. Yet, for slow feeder like prawn and shrimps they are able to manipulate food using mouth appendages before ingestion (Holdich, 2002)
According to De Silva and Anderson 1995, binders can be grouped in three different classes which are binder of protein origin, carbohydrate source binder and binder with no nutritional value. Besides, there have been more than 50 organic and inorganic binders have been employed in feed industry (Kalian & Morey, 2009). However, some of these binders, such as wheat gluten or starches, have a nutritive value for the animals, while others, are inert raw materials without nutritional value (Sinha et al. , 2011).
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