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M.Lehman & M.Thornwall (2009), conducted study on attitude towards homosexuality among college students. A cross sectional study and non random purposive sample design was used. Results showed that an independent samples t test was run to compare mean scores for males and females. There were significant mean differences between the genders regarding variables SPA, FAM, PER, SPF, SPR, RTM, and CWH. A reliability analysis was run to show if the variables were a reliable index to measure the major concept, factors that influence college students” attitudes towards homosexuality. Cronbach’s Alpha is a measure of reliability and was 0.581. This value indicated that survey items were a reliable measure of the major concepts; however, if the variable SPR were to be removed, the reliability would rise to 0.717.
Igor Grabovac et al (2010), conduct study on attitudes and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb. In 2010, survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students and survey contain the common demographic data to validated questionnaires “Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire’” and “Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality scale’’. Results found that mean knowledge scores were X=14.8 out of 20. Besides, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participant. The regression model was noteworthy (ANOVA: Sum of squares=38.065; df=17, Mean Square=2239, F= 10.6; p<0.001) with 38% of clarified variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p= 0.015), sixth year of the study (beta= -0.16, p=0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta=0.48,p<0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students .so the educational efforts should be included in the syllabus of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the LGBT groups.
Bojana Dunjic, et al (2011), conducted study on knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality among medical professionals at Belgrade, Serbia. The suitable convenient sampling was use and socio-demographic questionnaire, knowledge about homosexual questionnaire and attitude toward homosexual questionnaire were used. Results showed that male participants showed a low knowledge about homosexuality t(175)=-2.81, p=0.005,and higher propensity to stigmatize homosexually oriented individuals t(175)= 3.38, p=0.001. The participants who pronounced themselves as “non-religious” showed more knowledge about homosexuality than those proclaiming themselves as “ religious” t (175)=4.36, p=0.000. The physician &students did not contrast in knowledge t(175) = 1.00, p= 0.318, and attitudes t(175)= 0.68, p= 0.500 and 2nd year students showed less knowledge comparison with the 6th year students (M=-2.93, SD= 1.01, P=0.004) and the trainees (M= -3.28, SD= 1.09, P= 0.003). Meanwhile the second year students and specialists showed a same level of knowledge, with the specialists scoring higher on the questionnaire (M= 1.71, SD= 1.12, P= 0.129).The specialist did not significantly differ in their knowledge from the sixth year students (M= -1.22, SD= 1.01, P= 0.233) and the trainees ( M= -1.57, SD= 1.09, P= 0.153) . By the help of attitude towards homosexuals questionnaire find out the participants had more negative attitude towards the many statement(M= 4.00; SD= 1.20) .
Rose Chapman, T Zappia, P Nicol, L Shields (2011), conducted study on attitude, knowledge and beliefs regarding LGBT parents seeking health care for their children among nursing and medical students in Australia. Descriptive, comparative study with convenience sampling was used. Results depict that the mean age of nursing students” (23.8 years, range 19-50 years) was significantly different to the mean age of medical students(24.7 years, range 21-46 years, U=3860,p<0.001). student group was significantly connected with sex (x2 =30.9, df=1, p<0.001), Caucasian race (x2=30.9, df=1, p<0.001) and highest qualification(x2=30.9, df=1, p<0.001).The overall significant difference in attitudes indicated by to sexual orientation reflected just a significant difference in attitude towards gay men (U=3272, p=0.001) and not attitudes towards lesbians (U=4478, p=0.10). Males had more negative attitudes gay men (mean subscale score 19.1) compared with females (mean subscale score 15.9).
Nurten Sargin & Osman Circir (2014), conducted study on attitudes toward homosexuality among prospective teachers in Konya, Turkey. Quantitative methodology survey with simple random sampling was used. 319 females and 169 male was participate. the age participants was between 19 to 22. The attitudes towards lesbians gay men scale (ATLG-R) were used as data gathering instruments. Results of one way ANOVA test showed that there was a significant differences in the participants” attitudes towards homosexuality according to age variable(p<.05). Female participants had more positive attitudes than the male towards homosexuals, it was also find out that 21-22 year old were more positive attitude than the other age groups.
Mabel Oti-Boadi, Gladstone F.K. Agbakpe and Emmanuel Dziwornu(2014), conducted study on attitude towards homosexuality among students of Ghana Technology University College in Ghanaian .328 student’s were selected in Ghana Technology University and stratified random sampling technique was used .The attitudes towards lesbian and gay men (ATLGM) scale were used to find out the attitude towards homosexuality. The results showed that female students had more negative attitude towards homosexuality [mean= 4.18, SD=0.76] compared to male [mean= 4.11, SD= .85]. Therefore males and females are not different in their attitudes towards homosexuals. Religion had a significant affect on attitude towards homosexuality [F(2,308)= 4.170, p=0.020].Christians and Moslems show more negative attitude than students who belong to traditional African religion towards homosexuality. Students year of study did not significantly influence attitude towards homosexuality [F (3,308) = 1.170, P= 0.130] though students in year two and year one recorded slightly higher score than those in year four and year three respectively. Year of study as an independent variable controls 2.4% variability in student’s attitude.
G Banwari, K Mistry,and H Gandhi (2015) conducted study on knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality among medical students and interns in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey design with a expediency sampling was used. All undergraduate medical students and interns considering in one Indian medical college. The participants filled the (SEKHQ) and AHQ. The results found that aggregate of 339 medical student and interns in all were approached and invited to participate, out of which 273(80.5%) consented to participate and returned the filled questionnaires. The mean age of the respondents was 20.04 (SD=1.62) years, range17-25.The mean total score of the respondents on SEKHQ was 10.59(SD=4.19), range 1-21.The mean total score of the respondents on the AHQ was50.52 (SD=8.63), range 25-85. Medical student and interns had lacking knowledge about homosexuality, female had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals.
Reddy Srikanth, Reddy Pooja, Quadi Meraj, Ohri Nishant, Desai Samir(2016), conducted study on attitudes towards homosexuality among psychiatrists in India. As cross-sectional online-based examination completed a time of 1 month. Results depict that study 190 psychiatrists assented to the study and submit finished form. The mean age of the respondents was 42.9 ±11.8 and the male, female ratio was 3.8. Most therapist (n=105) revealed that they see vicinity 1 and 10 gay patients per year and 95.26% reported that they were happy and comfortable doing as such. Most (83.15%) happy referring a patient to a homosexual colleague. The mean HATH score was 59.3±4.6 and there was no significant differences across gender, age, workzone and practice profile.
Jean Claude Mortin & Jnnifer(2013), conducted study on college student’s sexual knowledge and attitude in Marshall University. In this study 101 males and 100 females were participate. ANOVA and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Result depict that mean score(83%) on the sexual knowledge of questionnaire, female students (M= 43.57) was more open minded than male student’s (M=40.19).
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