close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Memory and Eye Witness Testimony: The Reliability of Witnesses

downloadDownload printPrint

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay. We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

blank-ico
Download PDF

The debate on eyewitness reliability has been a long one as eyewitnesses can be a key component in court cases, especially criminal trails. The purpose of having witnesses of crime testifying in court is to aid the prosecutor or defense lawyer’s argument in hopes that the truth will be revealed through the adversarial system – that is the ideal. Several studies, including ones by Loftus, Tversky and Kahneman in the mid-1970s explored how witnesses can be directed to particular responses when asked questions that insinuate details of the incident or questions that have a biased answer set (as cited in Gurney, Pine & Wiseman, 2013).

However, at the time, less attention was given to non-verbal communication and its effects on memory recollection. Non-verbal communication such as gestures are found everywhere in human interactions as they add clarity to speech and makes for more effective communication between the speaker and listener (Gurney, Pine & Wiseman, 2013). Gurney, Pine and Wiseman’s gestural misinformation effect explored how gestures can influence how one comprehends and recalls information (2013). Gurney, Pine & Wiseman referenced Kelly, Barr, Church and Lynch’s experiment from 1999, two participating groups were shown a video of a woman saying, “My brother when to the gym”, although the message in both videos were identical, the gestures varied (as cited in Gurney, Pine & Wiseman, 2013). One group watch the video where there were no gestures accompanying the video, while the other group were shown the video with the woman making a gesture of shooting a basketball (as cited in Gurney, Pine & Wiseman, 2013). As a result, those who had seen the latter video falsely recalled the events and claimed that the woman’s brother when to play basketball (as cited in Gurney, Pine & Wiseman, 2013).

Gurney, Pine and Wiseman applied a similar concept to their own experiments which also resulting in similar findings. The interaction between Crown, Defense and the witness take place during testimony and cross examination and the use of gestures, in combination with postevent visual details and the length of time between the incident and the trail can skew the witness’s recollection of the event. However, the witness does not consider these factors because they become integrated into their memory and they believe that is what they originally witnessed.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Memory and Eye Witness Testimony: the Reliability of Witnesses. (2019, November 26). GradesFixer. Retrieved December 5, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/memory-and-eye-witness-testimony-the-reliability-of-withnesses/
“Memory and Eye Witness Testimony: the Reliability of Witnesses.” GradesFixer, 26 Nov. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/memory-and-eye-witness-testimony-the-reliability-of-withnesses/
Memory and Eye Witness Testimony: the Reliability of Witnesses. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/memory-and-eye-witness-testimony-the-reliability-of-withnesses/> [Accessed 5 Dec. 2021].
Memory and Eye Witness Testimony: the Reliability of Witnesses [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Nov 26 [cited 2021 Dec 5]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/memory-and-eye-witness-testimony-the-reliability-of-withnesses/
copy to clipboard
close

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.

    close

    Attention! This essay is not unique. You can get a 100% Plagiarism-FREE one in 30 sec

    Receive a 100% plagiarism-free essay on your email just for $4.99
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample
    close

    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

    close

    Thanks!

    Please check your inbox.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now
    boy

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer
    exit-popup-close

    Haven't found the right essay?

    Get an expert to write you the one you need!

    exit-popup-print

    Professional writers and researchers

    exit-popup-quotes

    Sources and citation are provided

    exit-popup-clock

    3 hour delivery

    exit-popup-persone