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Unprotected Sex and HIV Transmission.

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Unprotected Sex and HIV Transmission

Several occasions that sex partners go unprotected sex

1. Alcohol

Consuming alcohol prior to sex is a major factor of unprotected sex in partners. Aresearch has predicted that Probability of having sex increases as participantsconsume any amount of alcohol and consume the increasingamount of alcohol. Secondly, probabilityof having unprotected sex increases as participants consume increasing amountof alcohol.

2. Powerdifference Sometimes peopleare afraid of their partner’s reactionand cannot ask the other to wear a condom during sex which increases the probability of getting ortransmitting HIV. This is an example of how power difference is harmful. It iseven harder to ask a partner to wear a condom in abusive and violentrelationships.

How is HIV transmitted through sex?

HIV occursthrough transfer of blood, pre-ejaculation, semen and vaginal fluids. Thereason why sexual activity is a risk for transmission of HIV is that it allows for the exchange of body fluids like blood, semen and vaginal secretions between partners.

1. Vaginal

IntercourseThe most commonway of transmission of HIV in the worldis unprotected vaginal intercourse. It has been revealed in a study thatmale-to-female HIV transmission during vaginal intercourse is notably morelikely than female-to-male HIV transmission. That is to say, HIV-positive mentransmit the virus to HIV-negative women through vaginal intercourse more than theHIV-positive women transmit the virus to HIV-negative men because of the larger surface area of mucosal tissues ofwomen and lining of both the vagina and cervix arerich in immune system cells which can damage easily. HIV is transmitted in menoccurs through the lining of urethra inside the tip of the penis or through a wound or cut on penisforeskin.

2. Anal

IntercourseThere is a highrisk of occurring HIV through anal intercourse. A receptive partner is at muchhigher risk for HIV during unprotected anal intercourse but each of twopartners can get HIV infected. The reason for this is HIV virus mixed withsemen is transmitted through direct contact with anal mucosal tissues. It hasbeen demonstrated in a study that pre-ejaculate (pre-cum) can contain highamounts of HIV and can result in transmission during anal intercourse.

It is possible for an insertive partner to get HIVinfected through a wound or cut on the penis or through the lining of theurethra inside the tip of the penis.

How and why unprotected sex have high rates of HIV transmission?

Unprotected sex has high rates of HIV transmission if you havesexual partners with a different HIV status than you. The probability oftransmitting HIV increases with a high viral load, and the probability ofgetting HIV also increases if your partner has a sexually transmitted disease(STD). If you have several sex partners then the chance of having intercourse with a partner who has a different HIV status than you increases so the risk of getting HIV increases.

1. Having a different HIV status than your partner

It is necessarythat the sex partners know the HIV status of each other. If your HIV status isnegative and you are involved in sex with a partner who is HIV-positive thenyour chances of getting HIV increase, and this probability increases each time you have sex with this partner.

2. Having sex with several sex partners

If you and yoursex partners have overlapping sex partners, your risk of getting HIV increases.The reason for this is that the more sexual partners you have in your lifetime,the more probably you are to have sex with HIV infected person. IF you aresexually active, you should have sex with fewer partners in future.

How is HIV prevented through sex?

1. Use of condom.

The probability of occurring HIV will significantly be lower if a condom is accurately used

during sex.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and treatment as

prevention are some other methods of protection during intercourse.

2. Use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

To lower the probability of getting HIV, an HIV-negativeperson can take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) pill to reduce the riskof HIV by more than 90 percent

3. Use post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

PEP consists oftaking prescription antiretroviral medications after a recent vulnerability toHIV. It is a short course used in an emergencysituation, generally for a month, after 72 hours of viable exposure.

4. Treatment as prevention

Treatment asprevention consists of taking medication to decrease the quantity of virus inblood so that the probability of that individual transmitting HIV to a sexualpartner may decrease.

References

cdc. (n.d.). increased risk.Retrieved december 9, 2017, from cdc:https://wwwn.cdc.gov/hivrisk/increased_risk/poz. (2017, October 27). HIVTransmission and Risks. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from poz:https://www.poz.com/basics/hiv-basics/hiv-transmission-risks

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"Unprotected Sex and HIV Transmission." GradesFixer, 06 Mar. 2018, https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/unprotected-sex-and-hiv-transmission/. Accessed 12 December 2018.
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