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The 19th century saw much social change, the rise of populism, the labor movement and Jacksonian democracy. Also slavery was abolished, and the First and Second Industrial Revolutions led to massive urbanisation.
Abolition and the American Civil War, Napoleonic Wars, Revolutions of 1848, Decline of the Ottoman Empire, the discovery of the laws of electricity and magnetism.
During the 19th-century life was transformed by the Industrial Revolution. As result, in the late 19th-century life became more comfortable for ordinary people. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world.
The 19th century was the age of machine tools. Inventions of the telegraph, typewriter, and the telephone led to faster and wider means of communication.
In 1804 the world population reached 1 billion. Population of Britain increased from 10 million to 40 million in the 19th century.
The beginning of the 19th century was dominated by “classical economists.” In the 1860’s, a revolution took place in economics. During the late 19th century, changes in industrial production, trade, and imperialism led to a world economy.
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