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As the days of manned driving are getting extremely numbered, so are those of traffic jams, bad, dangerous and rough drivers and more importantly, accidents. Automation of the driving control of vehicles is one of the most vital need of the hour. This technology can very well implement what was absent before, controlled lane driving. Considering the hazards of driving and their more pronounced effect on vehicles our AUTOMATIC VEHICLE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM is exactly what is required. Safety is a necessary part of man’s life.
Due to the accident cases reported daily on the major roads in all parts of the developed and developing countries, more attention is needed for research in the designing an efficient car driving aiding system. It is expected that if such a device is designed and incorporated into our cars as a road safety device, it will reduce the incidence of accidents on our roads and various premises, with subsequent reduction in loss of life and property. However, a major area of concern of an engineer should be safety, as it concerns the use of his/her inventions and the accompanying dangers due to human limitations. When it comes to the use of a motor vehicle, accidents that have occurred over the years tell us that something needs to be done about them from an engineering point of view.
According to the 2007 edition of the Small-M report on the road accident statistic in Malaysia, a total of 6,035 people were killed in 2000 and the fatality spring up to 6,287 in 2006 from accident cases reported in 250,429 and 341,252 cases of accident for 2000 and 2006 respectively. The obtained results show that, high rate of accident is reported each year.
Now it is suffice to say that the implementation of certain highway safety means such as speed restrictions, among others, has done a lot in reducing the rates of these accidents. The issue here is that policies of safe driving alone would not eradicate this, the engineer has a role to play, after all the main issue is an engineering product (the motor vehicle). Many motorists have had 2 to travel through areas with little light under much fatigue, yet compelled to undertake the journey out of necessity. It is not always irresponsible to do this. A lot of cases reported is as a result of drivers sleeping off while driving, and when he/she eventually woke up, a head-on collision might have taken place. Not many have had the fortune to quickly avert this. It is therefore imperative to consider the advantages of an early warning system where the driver is alerted of a possible collision with some considerable amount of time before it occurs.
Chapter -2: literature Review: Abstract: Safety applications are among the key drivers in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) research, and their true performance can be only assessed if the application and the communication network are jointly considered. This paper presents a simulation study of an emergency braking (EB) application accomplished by embedding mobility, cars’ dynamic, and drivers’ behavior models into a detailed networking simulator (ns-3). The overall system allows capturing the interactions of the communications with the car’s automated braking mechanism (ABM) and the driver’s behavior. At the same time, it yields very detailed information on the communication level. In addition to the integrated tool, this paper presents a novel and simple message aggregation mechanism to empower message repropagation while controlling the network congestion during the peak load due to EB. Then, it discusses the effectiveness of such applications as a function of the market penetration rate (MPR), showing that even cars that are not equipped with communication devices benefit from the smoother and earlier reaction of the cars that can communicate. Fading phenomena and sensitivity to the radio transmitted power are analyzed, whereas the fine-grained dynamics of cars’ collisions, taking into account different masses and different elastic coefficients, are introduced to evaluate the severity of impacts.
Traffic accidents in Japan claim some 10,000 precious lives every year, and there is seemingly no end to the problem. In an effort to overcome this situation, vehicle manufacturers have been pushing ahead with the development of a variety of advanced safety technologies. Joint public-private sector projects related to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are also proceeding vigorously. Most accidents can be attributed to driver error in recognition, judgment or vehicle operation. This paper presents an analysis of driver behavior characteristics in emergency situations that lead to an accident, focusing in particular on operation of the brake pedal. Based on the insights gained so far, we have developed a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function (BAP) designed to prevent accidents by helping drivers with braking actions. Experimental results have confirmed that BAP is effective in reducing the impact speed and the frequency of accidents in emergency situations. Citation: Tamura, M. , Inoue, H. , Watanabe, T. , and Maruko, N. , “Research on a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0357, 2001, https: //doi. org/10. 4271/2001-01-0357. Ultrasonic MODULES: (ultrasonic TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER): The ultrasonic module, as the name suggests, operates at sound Frequency. The corresponding frequency range varies. In this ultrasonic system, the digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. This kind of modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). Transmission through ultrasonic is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons. Firstly, signals through ultrasonic can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications. Also, while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode, ultrasonic signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter & receiver. Next, ultrasonic transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission. ultrasonic communication uses a specific frequency unlike IR signals which are affected by other IR emitting sources.
HOW PROJECT MODEL WORKS: The automatic speed control of vehicles comprises of:
Buzzer WORKING: A ultrasonic is being placed on front side of vehicle in traffic prone areas like schools, colonies, hospitals, four ways etc. This is an ordinary sheet which is being made up of any material like aluminum, plastic etc. beside being used in this project this sheet can be utilized for commercial purposes as any brand can commercialize their product through advertisement on it. The length of sheet is taken in such a way that the vehicle of any size is able to cross it easily.
The vehicle has ultrasonic sensor and controller installed on it. The IR sensor is installed on left side of the car. It sends Infrared signals which strikes the sheet and gets reflected back to the LDR in ultrasonic sensor. now the resistor of LDR increases and sends some values to microcontroller.
The microcontroller automatically converts these signals into Digital signals and if controller receives a signal of adequate intensity only then it will start counting. This process continues till the sensor on vehicle is in affinity of sheet. But as the vehicle crosses the sheet the intensity of light on LDR increases hence resistance of LDR decreases hence LDR will not be able to send signals of adequate strength to controller. So the controller stops counting. The microcontroller has a default value of count pre-define on it with the help of programming. Now as soon as microcontroller stops counting it start its another function i. e comparing the practical count to default count. When controller start comparing the practical count to default count, there exist two conditions:
THE MAIN FEATURES:
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