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September 23, 63 BCE
August 19, 14
Caesar Augustus was the first and the greatest Roman emperor. He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BC in Rome. His father was a senator and governor in the Roman Republic. Gaius Octavius’s mother, Atia, was the daughter of Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar. In 47 BC Octavius went to Spain to fight alongside Caesar.
The 17-year-old Octavius was at Apollonia completing his academic and military studies when, the news of Caesar’s assassination arrived. Octavian allied himself with Caesar's close friend and relative, Mark Antony. Octavian, Antony and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate and defeated the traitors in the battle of Philippi in October 42 BC. After the “Donations of Alexandria,” Octavian declared war on Cleopatra and Mark Antony, in late 32 BC. Octavian’s forces defeated combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and became an undisputed ruler of Rome.
In 27 BC, Octavian founded the principate, a system of monarchy headed by an emperor holding power for life. Octavian took the name Augustus, meaning "lofty" or "serene". By 2 BC Augustus was declared "Pater Patriae", the father of his country. During his 40-years reign, Augustus doubled the size of the empire and transformed Rome with impressive new buildings. The economy, the arts and agriculture flourished during Augustus' reign.
Augustus died on 19 August 14 CE. His official last words were, "I found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble." He was succeeded by Tiberius who he had adopted in 4 CE.
Augustus considered as one of the most effective leaders in human history. The month of August was named in his honor. The era of Augustus' reign was a golden age in every respect.
"I found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble."
"If you want rainbow, you have to deal with the rain."
"We write our names in the sand: and then the waves roll in and wash them away."
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