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c. 509 BC–27 BC
According to legend, Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demigods, Romulus and Remus, at beginning in the eighth century BC. Romulus became the first king of Rome, which is named for him. Rome’s era as a monarchy ended in 509 BC with the overthrow of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Rome was built on seven hills, known as "the seven hills of Rome"—Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Aventine Hill, Capitoline Hill, Quirinal Hill, Viminal Hill and Caelian Hill.
Rome turned from a monarchy into a republic. In 509 BC, Rome’s wealthiest citizens established a republican government by creating various assemblies of Roman citizens. In 450 BC, the first Roman law code was inscribed on 12 bronze tablets–known as the Twelve Tables. Roman society was a cultural mix of Latin and Etruscan societies.
During the early republic, the Roman state grew exponentially in both size and power. After the wars with the North African city of Carthage (known as the Punic Wars, 264-146 BC), Romans captured Sicily, the western Mediterranean, much of Spain and northern Africa. Rome's control rapidly expanded during the period—from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
The crisis of the Roman Republic refers to an extended period of political instability and social unrest from about 134 BC to 44 BC. The ensuing period of unrest and revolution marked the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire.
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