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753 BCE - c. 500
Julius Caesar, Augustus, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Pompey the Great, Diocletian
According to legend, Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demigods, Romulus and Remus, at beginning in the eighth century BC. Romulus became the first king of Rome, which is named for him. Rome’s era as a monarchy ended in 509 BC with the overthrow of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Rome was built on seven hills, known as "the seven hills of Rome"—Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Aventine Hill, Capitoline Hill, Quirinal Hill, Viminal Hill and Caelian Hill.
Rome turned from a monarchy into a republic. In 450 BC, the first Roman law code was inscribed on 12 bronze tablets–known as the Twelve Tables. During the early republic, the Roman state grew exponentially in both size and power. After the wars with the North African city of Carthage (known as the Punic Wars, 264-146 BC), Romans captured Sicily, the western Mediterranean, much of Spain and northern Africa.
The Ancient city of Rome had a vast number of monumental structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. The native language of the Romans was Latin. The education of the Roman elite was dominated by training in language skills, grammar, and rhetoric. Roman architecture and engineering innovations have had a lasting impact on the modern world. The imperial city of Rome was the largest urban center in the empire.
The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world. Commodus (180-192) brought the golden age of the Roman emperors to an end. Rome collapsed by losing its provinces one by one. The western part of the empire broke up into independent barbarian kingdoms in the 5th century.
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