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Electricity has a prior importance in life. We cannot even think about a day without electricity. That much influence has there with electricity in our life. Electricity is the key component to modern technology and without it, most of the things that we use every day simply could not work and would never have been created. Electricity saves lives and allows people to live longer. So not only are we are more aware and intelligent society but we have become much healthier. Our lives have improved no end by electricity, and it is certainly true that most people’s living quality would be significantly reduced and affected if electricity were to somehow disappear. But we are having some misconceptions about electrical accidents and some facts about electricity. Young and new workers have a high risk for work-related injury compared with more experienced workers. In this project we deal with monitoring the parameters like supply voltage, current, power factor, temperature, humidity, earth resistance, also we aim at providing overvoltage, overcurrent protection (MCB) along with RCCB implementation all in one device that too electronically, which decreases response time and provides a higher degree of safety.
In this project, our aim is to give the industry level safety and to monitor the electrical parameters for a home like Supply voltage, current, power factor, temperature, humidity, Earth value. Also, we aim at providing Overvoltage protection, overcurrent protection (MCB) along with RCCB implementation all in one device that too electronically, which decreases response time and provides a higher degree of safety.
Schematic overview of a total home monitoring system
Since it is a protection device this device is installed in series with the energy meter as shown below. The device is named as Industry safety monitoring device for home or ISM Device henceforth.
Circuit Diagram of ISM system
1. Power Supply
Incoming AC supply is used to convert into DC supply by using Switch mode power supply (SMPS). We get 12VDC, 1Amp supply from SMPS which is used to power the Entire system. Earthing is connecting to devise body. SMPS can take voltage fluctuations and provide smooth DC output.
ATmega2560 is used to process the device parameters. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.
A0 A1 A2 A3 are analog channel ADC of microcontroller
D0 D1…. Are digital channel of microcontroller
3. TFT Touch Screen
TFT screen enables to see the parameters and control the process it has 480 x 320 Resolution, RGB 65K true to life colours, TFT screen with integrated resistive touch panel, 4 pin TTL serial interface, 16M Flash memory for User Application Code and Data, Onboard micro-SD card slot for firmware upgrade, Visual Area: 73.44mm (L)?48.96mm (W).
Adjustable Brightness: 0~180 nit, the interval of adjustment is 1 %, 5V, 500 mA DC recommended power supply, 5V145mA power consumption.
4. Temperature humidity sensor
Low cost, 3 to 5V power and I/O, 2.5mA max current use during conversion (while requesting data), Good for 20-80% humidity readings with 5% accuracy, Good for 0-50°C temperature readings ±2°C accuracy, No more than 1 Hz sampling rate (once every second)
Body size : 15.5mm x 12mm x 5.5mm, 4 pins with 0.1″ spacing.
L&T contactor of 230V, 32A is used since single phase allowed till 7.5KW, this contractor does all the work. SL100 is BJT used to turn ON-OFF the contractor.
Earth value can be measured by measuring the AC voltage between Neutral and Earth pins. We use Step up transformer to maximize the Minimum AC voltage developed since ideally, 0V develops between Earth and neutral. This AC voltage is step up at the output, rectified and then attenuated by 100K trimmer potentiometer to adjust microcontroller working voltage of 5V, understands variations in 0-5V only. The voltage developed is proportional to the resistance of earth and neutral and should be less then 2VAC. The input voltage is measured by using a step-down transformer by converting input 230V into 5VAC then rectifying it and feed it to the microcontroller. The variation in input voltage is measured by this sensory network.
In this project we deal with monitoring the parameters like Supply voltage, current, power factor, temperature, humidity, Earth resistance, also we aim at providing Overvoltage, overcurrent protection (MCB) along with RCCB implementation all in one device that too electronically, which decreases response time and provides a higher degree of safety.
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