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Engineering is the application of scientific knowledge and mathematical methods to practical purposes of the design, construction or operation of structures, machines, or systems. The discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. The specific types or applications of Engineering is Computer, Electrical, Mechanical, Civil, Environmental, chemical. naming just a few. The engineering applications that I will be focusing is civil.
The history of engineering has been apart of life since the beginnings of humans. The earliest days of civil engineering can be traced back to 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, and Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic lifestyle, creating a need for the construction of the shelter. The construction of pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700–2500 BC) were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447–438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), the Great Wall of China.
Civil engineering is the oldest of the main branches of engineering. Civil engineers use their knowledge to supervise and plan construction projects such as roads, airports, bridges, canals, tunnels, and wastewater systems. They also collaborate with architects to design and construct various types of buildings. Some other civil engineering endeavours include highways, airports, pipelines, railroads, levees, and irrigation and sewage systems. Civil engineers try to design their structures to be functional, efficient and durable. Most of the projects civil engineers are involved with having an impact on the environment. They use their knowledge of the environment to create structures that are not harmful.
The civil engineering profession has an exceptional opening to create a progression of change that will progress and sustain the environment and our planet in the long term. These are the very actions that make civil engineering a distinctive and very important profession for our planet and for our lives. There have been several projects around the world, which are known to be the most sustainable building in the 21st century. Their design, development, use of material and the construction is processed and analysed so careful and that they have managed to come out with the successful result in all of the following projects. They are known to be the environmentally friendly and economically friendly too.
Design sustainability is not an easy route as it must be applied in every design theory. Starting from the conception of the design and moving to the location, the structural materials, the structural methods and finally the possible demolition of the project, design sustainability has to be applied in many areas. On the other hand, sustainable construction must aim to use less natural materials and materials which are dangerous to the environment, also less energy to cut the amount of the waste and reduce the environmental pollution without negotiating the quality of the project. Sustainable thinking, planning and acting must be involved in civil engineering to reduce the environmental effecting projects have over their whole design life. Only in the course of this process, and by implementing sustainable thinking at every phase of a project, can a set of ideologies to improve the quality of life be created.
The economic component of sustainability has been the main driver of projects. As civil engineering considering the sustainability issues, we need to consider more than today alone. It is vital to account for cost over a whole life cycle and the impact on the future development. These costs must be considered in tandem with the social consequences and environmental impacts.
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