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Intermolecular Forces and Why They Are Important

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Intermolecular Forces and Why They Are Important essay
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In my penny lab report, my lab guiding question is “How does the surface tension and relative intermolecular forces compare between certain substances?” To answer this question, I have to know what is the intermolecular forces and why they are important.

The intermolecular forces are basically the force between molecules. This force based on the electric force between the molecules bond in which nonpolar and polar bond. There are 4 popular types of intermolecular force: London dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonds, and Ion-Dipole. Ion-Dipole has the biggest strength of attraction. In contrast, London dispersion has the weakest strength of attraction because it occurs between nonpolar molecules. Hydrogen bonds and Dipole-Dipole have weak intermolecular force as follow the Ion-Dipole. The molecule has the attraction when they near each other. For example, the reason for dew’s sphere shape is a cohesion of water. Because the water has the habit of being held together by cohesion, a pulling force between the molecules. Specifically, surface tension is another example of intermolecular force. Surface tension applied to reduce the surface form the free surface of the liquid. Since the near distance of the molecules has more potential energy than the molecules inside of the liquid, the liquid has a proportional surface energy, which results in surface tension. For example, the presence of floating water strider on the water, droplet hanging from webs, and raindrops rolling on grass reveal the surface tension of the liquid is tightly stretched. Hence, the material with bigger intermolecular force has bigger surface tension. Back to my lab, I use intermolecular force and surface tension to compare the materials in my lab. To get the big intermolecular force and surface tension, the material should have polar bonds rather than nonpolar bonds.

Also, the material that contains nonmetal element has bigger electronegativity; it also has bigger intermolecular force because the electronegativity shows the force between element’s attraction. However, the effective nuclear charge should be low because it represents the repulsive force between nuclear and electrons. Finally, the material should not very close to each molecules-molecular geometry-because the intermolecular force gets smaller if the distance between molecules is very close. My hypothesis is the water has biggest intermolecular force/surface tension, Benzene, isopropyl alcohol, Acetone, Cyclohexane, Ethanol, and Methanol.

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